The herbaceous plant angelica officinalis ((Archangelica officinalis), also called angelica officinalis, is a species of the genus Angelica of the Umbrella family. The homeland of such a herb is the northern part of Eurasia. Gardeners grow it as an ornamental, medicinal and aromatic plant. It is also called angelica, wolf's pipe, The angelica was brought to Central Europe from Scandinavia in the 15th century, after which it spread to other areas. In nature, angelica prefers to grow in pine-birch and spruce forests, along forest ravines, and also along the banks of streams and rivers.
Angelica officinalis is a herbaceous fragrant biennial plant, which in the first year of growth forms only a basal rosette, consisting of a bundle of leaf plates, while the development of peduncles and shoots occurs only in the second year. A short brown radish-shaped rhizome reaches about 80 mm in diameter, it is overgrown with many adventitious roots. It contains milky juice of white or pale yellow color. A single, erect, naked, thick stem reaches a height of about 250 cm, it has a cylindrical shape, it is branched in the upper part, and is hollow inside. Alternately spaced triple-pinnate leaf plates have large two- or three-lobed ovoid segments. The basal leaves are large and have a triangular shape and long petioles, while the stem leaves are smaller and have a stalk-enclosing sheath. The umbrella-shaped inflorescence is rather large, complex and almost spherical, it consists of 20–40 rays and reaches about 15 centimeters in diameter. The inflorescence is formed on the peduncle, which has dense pubescence in the upper part. Small flowers consist of 5 petals, greenish-yellow in color, they do not represent any decorative value. The fruit is an elliptical two-seed, yellow or pale green in color, which splits into 2 semi-fruits. Flowering at the bush is observed in the second year of life from June to August. Fruit ripening occurs in July – September.
Growing angelica in the garden
Well-lit areas or those in partial shade are best suited for growing angelica, while the soil should be nutritious, well-moistened and permeable to water. The preparation of the site is carried out immediately before sowing; for this, it is digged with the introduction of humus or compost into the soil. Then the surface of the site is leveled. Such a culture is sown in open ground in September before winter, before the onset of spring, the seed will have time to undergo natural stratification. You need to sow seeds thickly, because their germination rate is relatively low. If excessively dense shoots appear in the spring, then they will need to be planted, adhering to the scheme of 60x40 or 60x30 centimeters. Crops do not need shelter for the winter.
In the event that the sowing of angelica seeds is planned for the spring, they will need to be stratified. To do this, the seed is placed in the refrigerator on the vegetable shelf, where it will stay for 3 winter months. However, do not forget to first combine it with moistened sand and pour the resulting mixture into a container. Most often, with the onset of the spring period, very few viable seeds remain.
After the seedlings appear, it is recommended to mulch the surface of the garden bed with moss, which will have a beneficial effect on the yield of plants. It is very simple to grow an angelica on your site, for this you need to water it in a drought, remove weeds from the site, feed it with mineral fertilizers twice a season, often loosen the soil surface around the bushes, and, if necessary, protect them from harmful insects and diseases.
Diseases and pests
In some cases, such a herbaceous plant is affected by fungal diseases, namely powdery mildew or rust. Experts do not recommend spraying the bushes with chemicals, since they differ in their ability to accumulate toxic substances in themselves. In this regard, it is better to resort to preventive measures: adhere to the rules of crop rotation, feed the plants with mineral fertilizers with a minimum amount of nitrogen, and systematically remove weeds from the garden.
Angelica is distinguished by its resistance to drought, and the most dangerous of harmful insects for him is the spider mite, which also prefers dry weather. In order to get rid of ticks, the bushes should be sprayed with tobacco infusion. To prepare it, combine three liters of water and 0.2 kg of tobacco or makhorka, after a day the infusion will be ready. The strained infusion must be combined with 50 mg of liquid soap to increase its stickiness, then the bushes and the soil under them are treated with it.
Collection and storage of angelica
Most often, angelica root is used for medicinal purposes, only in some cases its foliage and seeds are used for this purpose. In bushes of the first year of life, the harvesting of roots is carried out in the autumn (in September – October), and in plants of the second year of life - in the spring (in March – April). They should be carefully removed from the soil, then the remnants of the earth are removed from the roots and the aboveground part is cut off. After that, a thorough examination of the raw material is carried out, while it is necessary to discard those roots that were injured by moles or voles, because they lose their medicinal properties. Then the roots need to be rinsed in cold water and cut lengthwise. Pieces of raw material are laid out in 1 layer on a lattice, paper sheet or thin cloth for drying, they are placed in the shade in the open air or in a well-ventilated room. In order to dry the roots in the oven, it should be heated to a temperature of 35–40 degrees. The foliage is harvested during the flowering period, it is dried in a shaded place in the open air.
After the raw materials are ready, they are placed in cardboard boxes, which can be tightly closed, or in bags. It is stored for no longer than 2 years.
Main types and varieties
There are 3 subspecies of Angelica officinalis, namely: Angelica archangelica subsp. archangelica; Angelica archangelica subsp. norvegica; Angelica archangelica subsp. Litoralis. In Russia, work on the development of new varieties of such a plant is not being carried out. The most popular among gardeners are such European angelica varieties as Jizerka and Budakalaszi.
Angelica properties: harm and benefit
The healing properties of angelica
Angelica officinalis contains a large number of useful substances. So, the rhizome contains essential oils, valerian, malic, acetic, angelic and other acids, as well as resins, wax, sugars, carotene, pectins, bitter and tannins. Essential oil is squeezed out of the roots, which is a liquid with a musky smell, it contains protein, fats, proteins, carbohydrates, fiber, fatty oils, phosphorus, calcium, vitamin B12 and ascorbic acid. The oil has such a characteristic aroma due to the fact that it contains the substance ambrettolide.
For a long time, people know that this plant helps to stimulate blood circulation, strengthen the immune system and heart muscle, increase the secretion of pancreatic juice and bile, and also tones the nervous and cardiovascular system. It is used for gout, rheumatism, and kidney disease. To rub the lower back for pain, use an alcoholic tincture of angelica. Its rhizome is included in the composition of the fees that are recommended during the treatment of alcohol dependence. Another such root is distinguished by antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, expectorant and diuretic effect. It is recommended to use it for bronchitis, colds, indigestion, infertility in anemic women, circulatory disorders, prenatal and postnatal weakness and dizziness. Angelica is also used for cystitis and rheumatic inflammatory processes due to the fact that it has an antiseptic effect. In alternative medicine, it is used for wilting and irritation of the skin, as well as for the treatment of psoriasis. The fragrance of this plant is often used in the cosmetic and perfumery industry, especially in colognes and perfumes with an oriental bouquet. It is also used in the food industry for flavoring alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages.
Angelica honey is very valuable, its color varies from amber red to dark brown. Honey can be lard-like, fine-grained, resinous, or even thicker. Such honey differs from the rest in that it has a weak ability to crystallize. It has a specific smell and a sharp pleasant taste with a barely perceptible bitterness and a caramel-candy aftertaste.
Angelica root - how is angelica root useful?
Angelica should not be used by people with individual intolerance to the substances it contains. Also, experts do not recommend using it for patients with diabetes mellitus during pregnancy.
The stenicum is distinguished by its well-developed main root in comparison with the lateral roots. Stems in some species grow upward without any support, in others the stems creep, the average height is 35 cm. The arrangement of oblong bright green leaves, 7 cm long, is alternate. Blossom in summer, some species in spring. Inflorescences - an umbrella, consist of tiny flowers with a diameter of 1.5 cm. The colors of flowers of representatives of different species and varieties of stennik are varied: petals of lemon, violet, pink, snow-white. The flowers exude a delicate pleasant aroma. The culture is known as a great honey plant. The fruit of the plant is a medium-sized flattened pod with tiny brown seeds that retain the ability to germinate up to four years.
General characteristics of celandine
Celandine has a straight stem that branches. The height is from 50 cm to 1 m. At the break, a thick sap is released, which, upon contact with air, turns orange with a reddish tint. The lower leaves growing at the roots are deeply pinnate-separated. They consist of several pairs of lobes that are round or ovoid. The upper lobe is three-lobed, and is large in comparison with the rest. Above, the leaves are green, and on the back, they are bluish. The upper leaves are sessile, and the lower ones are arranged on petioles. The flowers are correct, have 4 petals. Color - yellow with a golden tint. The diameter of one flower is up to 25 mm. They gather in umbrellas. The flowers do not have nectaries, but they have a lot of pollen, which attracts insects. The fruit of the plant is a pod-shaped capsule. Seeds are black, small.
For persimmons, the most suitable soil is black soil, loamy, but it must be well-drained, with an admixture of sand. Then the plant will bear fruit well and grow quickly. In soils where water is strongly stagnant, as well as those that contain a large amount of mineral salts, clay, gray soils are not suitable for its cultivation. In such places, the plant begins to ache, bear fruit poorly.
Frost resistance. Temperature and illumination
The most frost-resistant persimmon variety is Virginsky, which can withstand temperatures up to - 32–35 ° C, Vostochny up to -22–24 ° C, Caucasian up to -17–20 ° C.
Persimmon is unpretentious to temperature extremes (spring and autumn frosts), sometimes you can see berries under a layer of snow, under which young branches retain their vital activity. Branches of seedlings 1–5 years of age are most susceptible to the first frost. For persimmons, they choose a place that is sunny or with a little shade during daylight hours, as well as a space without drafts. Planting is carried out from the southern or southeastern side of the infield.
Persimmon is whimsical to the neighborhood of other plants, therefore, other crops should not be planted under it or at a close distance from it. A large, spacious area from 20 to 70 square meters fits a persimmon. m.
Growing a tree at home is simpler and cheaper than buying a seedling. But they follow several rules, stages of cultivation:
- the bone must be from a ripe local harvest
- the seed is pulled out of the berry, washed and dried at room temperature
- the bone is soaked in a weak solution of manganese (fungicide) for 20-30 minutes for disinfection and dried
- sharpen the sharp, hard edges of the bone a little with a nail file and place in the refrigerator for 1-2 months (stratify) to awaken the sprouts
- remove the seed from the refrigerator, let it warm up to room temperature for 24 hours
- the next day, wrap the seed with gauze or a thin cloth, soak it in warm water with a growth stimulating solution. Soaked for 3 days
- prepare a pot with well-fertilized soil. Add sand, sawdust, wood ash, peat, expanded clay to black soil (to the bottom and a layer in the middle of the pot)
- the bone is laid horizontally in a pot, sprinkling with soil mixture by 2-3 cm
- spray the ground with warm water from a spray bottle
- cover the pot with glass or plastic, creating the effect of a greenhouse
- as necessary, water the persimmon and air it so that the process of bone decay does not start
- the first shoots will appear within a month. Open the pot when the first 2 leaves grow
- as soon as the sprout reaches 45-50 cm, it is transplanted into a larger pot for the development of the root system
- the soil, the pot is changed as the plant grows 2-4 times a year
- In the spring - autumn period, the plant is taken out into the fresh air for hardening. If the weather is damp, cold or frost is expected, then the plant is brought into the room at night.
- 1-2 times a month watered with fertilizers
- when the sprout reaches 70-80 cm, pinch the top to form lateral branches
- at a plant height of 1.2 m - 1.5 m, they are planted in open ground.
The most suitable varieties of persimmons for growing in an apartment and do not require transplanting into open ground: Zenjiaru, Hyakume. During the growth of the shoots, decorative pruning of the tree is carried out to form a beautiful, compact crown.
Autumn and spring planting in open ground
The most favorable planting for persimmon seedlings is the spring time, when the soil temperature warmed up to 15-17 ° C. Over the summer, the plant will have time to get stronger, successfully overwinter. Saplings bought in professional nurseries take root better than those grown from seed.
A few tips for choosing a persimmon seedling:
- buy seedlings in professional nurseries with a guarantee of the desired variety and grafted to local conditions
- examine the seedling from leaves to roots for damage, rot, diseases and pests
- carefully inspect the place where it was grown, if possible
- for a temperate climate, buy seedlings of early varieties
- the roots should be with an earthen ball, not bare
- the trunk of the tree is strong
- it is better to plant persimmon on the day of purchase or the next day, but not later.
Having chosen a landing site (preferably on a hill, near buildings that will close it from the wind and blizzards), they dig a hole depending on the size of the root, but so that there is 30–40 cm of free space around it. Drainage with sand and broken stone or expanded clay is laid at the bottom of the pit, sprinkled with black soil mixed with manure, and then a seedling is planted, preferably in cloudy weather or after sunset. They dig in the soil, press down a little. Watered with warm water with fertilizers. For the first time, the tree needs support so that it does not tilt.It is important to dig in the vaccination site when planting. In the first 2-3 years, a young tree is covered for the winter with mulch, spruce branches or dry grass.
Autumn planting is carried out in September for regions with a temperate climate, in the subtropics and tropics, October - November. The main thing is to plant before the onset of the first frost, be sure to cover it for the winter. Persimmon begins to bear fruit for 2-3 years, subject to the rules of care.
Harvesting must be done at the end of autumn before the onset of the first frost. Otherwise, the earth will harden and removing the root from it there is a risk that the peel of the root crop will be damaged, which means that such a vegetable cannot be stored.
There are several ways to store root crops:
- Sand boxes, the harvested crop must be placed vertically in wet sand. It is important that the sand remains moist throughout the storage period.
- The collected roots are carefully dried, the leaves are cut and tied into bundles, covered with compost.
- Root crops are highly resistant to frost, so they can be left in the ground for the winter. It is necessary to insulate the top with straw. The taste of such black carrots will even improve.
- The harvested root vegetables can be frozen, while all the medicinal and nutritional properties are preserved.
- Scorzonera can be dried, while, as in the freezing method, all the necessary properties of the root crop are preserved. To do this, thoroughly wash the Spanish goat, dry it, peel, chop or grind it. Then lay out on paper and dry in a warm, ventilated room, in an oven or dryer until all moisture has evaporated. Then we store it in an airtight container.