Pelargonium (lat.Pelargonium) - a plant of the Geraniev family. In nature, there are up to 350 species of plants, which are usually herbaceous perennials, but there are also succulent plants and shrubs.
Homemade pelargonium surprises in that it can act on people in a diametrically opposite way: one of the aroma of Pelargonium becomes bad, while others it calms and relaxes. Only some types of Pelargonium have been cultivated, but this does not mean that there is nothing to choose from.
In addition to their decorative qualities, Pelargoniums stand out and are useful - they are used in medicine and perfumery. Pelargonium essential oil is used not only as a fragrance for soaps or perfumes, but also is an excellent tool for purifying the air from harmful impurities and microorganisms.
Briefly about growing
- Bloom: from May to October.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- Temperature: in spring and summer - 25-30 ºC, in winter - no higher than 14 ºC.
- Watering: in spring and summer - 3-4 days after the top layer of soil in the pot has dried. In winter - when the earthen lump dries up to a third of the depth.
- Air humidity: common for living quarters.
- Top dressing: in spring and summer - once every two weeks with mineral fertilizer for flowering plants. After the end of flowering, feeding is stopped.
- Rest period: from November to March.
- Cropping: annually during the period until early March.
- Transfer: young plants - annually, and adults - when the roots are completely entwined with an earthen lump.
- Substrate: humus, leaf, turf soil and sand in equal parts.
- Reproduction: seeds and cuttings.
- Pests: whiteflies and aphids.
- Diseases: root rot, gray rot, loss of attractiveness by leaves due to improper keeping conditions.
- Properties: some types of pelargonium are poisonous!
Read more about the cultivation of pelargonium below.
Video about pelargonium
Home care for pelargonium
Indoor pelargonium is just one of the plants that not only tolerate direct sunlight well, but also need them. Conclusion - windows on the south side are most suitable for pelargonium. But, despite this, the plant grows well even on the northern side, the main thing is that the daylight hours are long, otherwise the shoots will stretch out. In summer, pelargonium is taken out onto the street or balcony, if possible. The room with pelargonium needs to be ventilated, because she needs fresh air for normal development.
In summer, the temperature should be between 25 and 30 ° C, i.e. room temperature in summer. In winter, the temperature should be quite low, which is necessary for the normal flowering of pelargonium. So it is advisable not to rise above 14 ° C throughout the winter.
A pelargonium plant at home must be watered three to four days after the topsoil has dried. You can check by digging your finger 1-2 cm into the substrate. It's summer. In winter, watering is carried out in such a way that the soil simply does not dry out. At low air temperatures and high soil humidity, the roots of pelargonium can rot, which, in turn, can lead to the disease of the entire plant and its death.
The indoor flower pelargonium does not suffer from dry air, so it is not necessary to spray pelargonium. If the temperature is very high in summer, then it will not be superfluous to spray the leaves a little.
Feeding pelargonium is carried out once or twice with an interval of two weeks, a couple of months after transplantation. They are fed to improve flowering, for which they use phosphorus fertilizers. Feeding with organic fertilizers is undesirable - the plant absorbs them poorly.
Pelargoniums are pruned annually in indoor conditions, leaving shoots with only 2-4 nodes. This is done in order to obtain a lush flowering shrub. In pelargonium, it is necessary to remove leaves that have turned yellow or dried out. To do this, use a very sharp knife, and in no case tear off the leaves, since the torn edges can begin to rot. To prevent this from happening, the place of the cut is sprinkled with crushed charcoal. You need to trim the leaves so that the base of the petiole remains on the plant.
Young pelargoniums need an annual transplant, and older ones - when the roots completely entwine the pot with roots. On the bottom of the pot, as usual, drainage is poured, and on top is a soil mixture: humus, sod and leafy soil, peat and sand - all in equal parts.
Growing from seeds
Pelargoniums, when propagated by seeds, can lose varietal characteristics, which must be taken into account when planting. For sowing, a soil mixture is made from equal parts of peat, sand and sod land, poured into a low container. For quick emergence, the temperature should be around 22 ° C, then the seeds will germinate within two weeks. Pelargonium seedlings dive into individual small pots, and when the pot becomes small, they are transferred into pots 9 cm in diameter. The first flowering with proper care is observed after a little over a year.
Propagation by cuttings
Homemade pelargonium is best propagated by apical cuttings. Cut the cuttings and root them either at the end of winter or at the end of summer. The apical stalk is cut off, and the cut is made at an angle just below the node. There should be at least three leaves on the handle. Best of all - three to five sheets. The cuttings are left to dry for several hours, and before planting, the cut sites are treated with a root formation stimulator and crushed charcoal. A substrate is poured into the container from equal parts of sod land, sand and peat, and the cuttings are planted around the perimeter. You can pinch the stalk to make the pelargonium flower lush. The container with cuttings is put in place with bright diffused light and the soil is regularly sprayed. After 15-20 days, the cuttings should take root. When the seedlings get stronger, they are planted in individual pots. It should be borne in mind that the abundance of flowering depends on the size of the pot: the larger the pot, the poorer the pelargonium blooms. Pelargonium will bloom 5-7 months after rooting.
Not all pelargoniums are poisonous, but it is better to wash your hands after handling the flower if it is not known if this species is poisonous.
Diseases and pests
Pelargonium does not bloom. If the plant is not sick and is not affected by pests, then this could be caused by wintering at high air temperatures and bright lighting.
The edges of the lower leaves of pelargonium dry out, which turn yellow. Pelargonium lacks moisture in the soil - it is necessary to increase the frequency of watering.
The lower leaves of pelargonium wither, turn yellow and rot. Watering too often, the soil does not have time to dry out between waterings. Leaves need to be cut off, and sprinkle with crushed coal powder.
The base of the pelargonium stem turns black. This is root rot. She is the "Black Leg". Read in the section "Diseases" how to deal with it.
Swellings on pelargonium leaves. Excess moisture in the soil. Pelargonium should be watered a couple of days after the topsoil has dried.
Gray rot on pelargonium. Pelargonium does not tolerate stagnant water in the substrate. Improper watering - gray rot is right there!
Pelargonium pests. Whiteflies and aphids most often feed on pelargonium.
Aromatic Pelargonium / Pelargonium graveolens
Evergreen, strongly branching shrub, pubescent, grows up to 1 m in height. The leaves are pubescent, divided into 5-7 lobes, green. They smell good. Inflorescences are umbellate, numerous flowers are pink. The flowering period is throughout the summer.
Pelargonium capitate / Pelargonium capitatum
The species is represented by evergreen dwarf shrubs growing up to 0.5 m in height. Shoots and leaves are pubescent. Shoots are straight. The leaves seem to be crumpled, divided into 3-5 parts, green. The inflorescence is umbellate. Flowers are sessile, grow in large numbers, pinkish (with shades of purple). The flowering period is mid to late summer. The leaves smell.
Fragrant Pelargonium / Pelargonium odoratissimum
Shrub, leaves does not drop, shoots are short. Leaves up to 5 cm wide, cordate-rounded, with slightly ragged edges, covered with very short and soft hairs, smell very nice. Inflorescences are umbellate. Flowers are collected in 8-10 pieces, pink-white in color.
Pelargonium zonale / Pelargonium zonale
Evergreen meter-long semi-shrubs with pubescent and fleshy shoots. Leaves are usually whole and only sometimes slightly lobed, green in color with a brown border along the edge. Sessile red flowers are collected in multi-flowered inflorescences. Blooms from late spring to early autumn.
Pelargonium nodule / Pelargonium cucullatum
An evergreen pubescent shrub native to South Africa. Leaves on long stalks, green. The inflorescence is umbellate. The flowers are red-violet, numerous. The flowering period occurs in late summer - early autumn. There are varieties with double leaves.
Pelargonium grandiflorum / Pelargonium grandiflorum
One meter long evergreen shrub with many branches. Leaves are either lobed or dissected, reniform-rounded, or slightly pubescent or hairless. Up to 3 white flowers with red veins grow on the peduncle; flowers grow up to 3-4 cm in diameter. Flowering falls in mid-spring - early summer.
Curly Pelargonium / Pelargonium crispum
Evergreen shrubs with a large number of branches, grow up to 0.5 m. The leaves grow in two rows, the shape is approximately heart-shaped, dense, the edges are ragged-wavy, jagged. Blooms in mid to late summer. Flowers grow on low pedicels in two or three pieces. The leaves smell good.
Pelargonium Staining / Pelargonium inquinans
One and a half meter evergreen shrub with fleshy shoots. The leaves are rounded, reniform, dark green. Pedicels are short. The flowers are red. Depending on the care, it can bloom in late spring, summer, autumn and winter.
Pelargonium fluffy / Pelargonium crithmifolium
They are succulent deciduous plants with thick creeping shoots. The leaves are divided into lobes of a feathery shape and a bluish color, they reach 8 cm in length, they can be covered with hairs, or they can be non-pubescent. Inflorescences are umbellate. Pedicels are 1.5-2 cm long, flowers grow in 5-6 pieces, white; pharynx with red spots.
Pelargonium pink / Pelargonium radens
Evergreen one and a half meter shrubs with a large number of pubescent shoots. The leaves are pubescent on both sides: soft below and hard hairs above; the edges of the leaves are bent; the leaves are very deeply divided. They smell very nice. Peduncle umbellate, pubescent. The flowers are pink with dark veins, growing in several pieces on the peduncle.
Pelargonium angular / Pelargonium angulosum
Evergreen pelargonium growing up to 1 m in height. The leaves are a bit like an oak leaf, but the leaf lobes are wavy rather than straight. They grow on a short petiole. There are many flowers, most often bright red. With proper care, flowering falls in late summer - mid-autumn.
This species is a deciduous shrub that grows up to 60-70 cm in height. Stems are straight, tetrahedral, light green or tinged with gray. Leaves are heart-shaped, petiolar, covered with sparse hairs, grow up to 5 cm wide; the edge of the leaf is reddish brown. The flowers usually consist of 5 white petals (with a cream or pink tint) - 3 large petals at the top, and 2 smaller ones at the bottom.
Pelargonium peltatum / Pelargonium peltatum
Ampelous evergreen shrub. Shoots are pubescent or naked. Leaves are fleshy, thyroid, shiny, green, also pubescent or bare, divided into five lobes, smooth edges. The flowers are white, pink, red, collected in several pieces in umbellate inflorescences. Blooms from mid-spring to late summer.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the Geranium family
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Indoor Plants Information
Sections: Houseplants Geranium Plants on P
The very showy liana-like plant, the Hilocereus, is part of the Cactaceae family. This plant is considered by many growers to be the king of all cacti. During flowering, snow-white flowers appear on the bush, which at night fill the air with a heady aroma. This flower comes from Central America, but it grows well in the subtropics and tropics of other continents.
How to grow pelargonium from seeds
Indoor conditions, in January - February, sow pelargoniums for seedlings. The soil mixture should be able to pass water easily. It is best to purchase a ready-made potting mix.
It is necessary to make shallow grooves in the soil, arrange the seeds evenly in them and sprinkle them with a little earth.
Watering crops is necessary as the soil dries out, trying to avoid excess moisture. Since with an excess of moisture, the seeds can rot, and the seedlings will die from various root rot.
Pelargonium crops must be covered with foil to maintain the desired humidity and favorable microclimate. The boxes should be placed in a bright place where the air temperature is about 22 degrees.
Under these conditions, pelargonium seeds germinate in 4-6 days. When shoots appear, the film can be removed and the temperature can be lowered to 20 degrees. The place for seedlings must be well lit, otherwise they will stretch out and die.
When two real leaves appear, the seedlings need to be cut into small pots. If, due to a lack of light, the seedlings of pelargonium are stretched out, it is better to bury them 1 - 2 cm into the soil.
In this case, lateral roots will grow in them, and the seedlings of pelargonium will get stronger.
Pelargonium needs to be fed 2 weeks after the pick. First, you need to give liquid organic fertilizers, for example, Agricola-Fantasy.
Then, every 8 days, it is necessary to repeat the feeding, applying the fertilizer "Agricola for flowering plants", following the instructions.
Pelargonium prefers a dry climate rather than dampness, so you should not plant it in damp places. Pelargonium blooms beautifully in partial shade. True, the flowering is less abundant.
Pelargonium seedlings are planted in the ground in mid-May.
Pelargonium seedlings can be placed on the balcony early. In order for pelargonium to grow better and also bloom, it needs nutritious soil.
Better than a special soil mixture for pelargonium, it is difficult what to think of.
If it is not possible to purchase such a mixture, then before planting it is necessary to apply a complete complex fertilizer, for example, Agricola for flowering plants.
Pelargonium is planted in flower beds according to the scheme of 15x15 or 20x20 cm. Pelargonium is planted in small containers even closer and a little deeper than they grew in seedling pots.
This is done to form additional roots in the plant.
In autumn, pelargonium blooms for a very long time, it can tolerate cold snaps up to -3. If you want to prolong the flowering of your pelargonium, you need to dig up the plant and plant it in a pot.
If the earthen lump is very large, then the flowering of this plant almost does not stop.
Under optimal conditions created, on a light window, pelargonium will bloom for a couple of months.
If you want to grow pelargonium from seeds, you should definitely try to choose the right seeds.
How to get and collect seed
For self-collection of planting material, preliminary pollination of the flower is carried out. Using a brush, pollen is moved from one flower to another.After flowering, a seed box will form on the plant. When it is completely dry, they immediately begin to extract the planting material.
On a note! Seed propagation is used for simple species. Ampel, royal, terry and tulip varieties cannot be grown in this way.
There are no clear recommendations for when to plant pelargonium, since geranium from seeds is not particularly picky about growing. Florists advise to do this in the spring and summer season, when the greatest amount of sunshine.
If you don't want to wait for a warm time, it doesn't matter. You can use additional lighting of electric lamps and deal with seedlings all year round. Geranium will grow to medium size within 3-5 months.
Propagation using seeds
Florists are convinced that pelargonium grown from seeds is more resistant to diseases, hardened better and tolerates drafts and temperature extremes. Sowing is carried out in the second half of winter, after having disinfected and moistened the soil, on which the seeds are laid. After the seed has been covered with a thin layer of soil, the surface is carefully moistened again.
It is best to use a spray gun for watering crops that does not give a powerful jet that buries the seeds.
The container with the crops is covered with a film, with which condensate is removed daily until the sprouts appear, and placed in a room where the temperature is maintained from 20 to 24 ° C. Young, obtained from pelargonium seeds, dive on flocks of two true leaves, and further cultivation is carried out at a temperature of 16-18 ° C. The bushes are ready to "move" to a permanent place at the age of 1.5–2 months.
Features of caring for some species
Some plant varieties require special care. Especially the varieties of royal geraniums. You need to know them so that they do not get sick and bloom profusely.
For royal geraniums
The most whimsical and capricious variety is the royal geranium.
She requires increased attention to herself.
Subject to all her conditions, she will delight with her flowers:
- Waterlogging or drying out of the soil must not be allowed. The bush will start to ache from this. Watering should be carried out with settled or boiled water at room temperature.
- It must be watered through the pallet. So, the roots will absorb as much moisture as they need.
- You can only transplant in the spring. and only when the roots show through the hole in the bottom of the pot.
- You need to feed once every two weeks.
- In winter, you need to ensure the temperature is not higher than 15 degrees. And watering should be minimal.
- Without providing winter peace, it will not bloom.
- During the formation of buds, you can not trim and pinch
- Propagated only by cuttings. Cuttings should not be placed in water, they will rot in it. The breeding season is August-September.
- The royal geranium has a shorter flowering period than the zonal variety.
- To increase it, vaccination is done... To make it, the crown of the zonal geranium is cut off. The cut is split in a V-shape. A pointed graft of royal pelargonium is inserted into it. The junction is wrapped with foil from top to bottom. Be sure to install the support.
- On the stem, the buds are removed until the stems grow together. So that the geranium bush does not waste energy on flowering.
Behind the ampelous geranium
The ampelous geranium also has its own care features.
They are not as strict as those of the royal.
But they must be taken into account:
- In summer it is better to keep it outdoors, and in winter indoors at a temperature of 7 to 15 degrees
- For propagation by cuttings, a favorable month is August.
- You can not get carried away with nitrogen fertilizers. It is best to alternate organic and mineral feeding
Description of care
It is not difficult to grow and propagate geraniums. To do this, you need to use recommendations and advice. She will give you for your efforts not only with beautiful flowers and a wonderful aroma, but also disinfect the air. For adherents of traditional medicine, it will become a cure for many diseases. We have tried to collect for you the most necessary and interesting information on this topic. If you disagree with these ratings, leave your rating in the comments with the reasons for your choice. Thank you for your participation. Your opinion will be useful to other users.