Chamomile (Matricaria) is a perennial herb of the Asteraceae or Asteraceae family. This is a simple, but at the same time, an unusually beautiful flower. There are about 20 species of this herbaceous flowering perennial. Chamomile grows almost all over the planet. The most popular of all types is chamomile. It is used for both medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Too often, chamomile is confused with other flowers from the Asteraceae family, as they are similar to each other. This article will talk about garden chamomile (leucanthemum vulgare), about the rules for growing and caring for it.
Description of chamomile flower
Garden chamomile has two more names - daisy and popovnik. A chamomile can grow in height from 15 to 60 cm. And sometimes its height can reach up to one meter. The root system is not very powerful and strong, the root is erect and short. The stem of the flower is long and faceted with basal leaves of bright green or dark green color. The flowers are bright, like the sun, the diameter can reach up to 6 cm. The middle of the flower is bright yellow, and the petals themselves are white, but occasionally the leaves have a yellowish tint.
Growing chamomile from seeds
You can grow chamomile in two ways: seedlings and without seedlings. Of course, both methods give a positive result, but it is better to plant already grown seedlings in open ground. The best time to plant chamomile seeds for seedlings is March. In order for the seedlings to sprout well, it is necessary to prepare a special soil for planting it. Mix peat and sand in a 1: 1 ratio. It is not worth planting seeds deeply, it is enough to deepen them a couple of centimeters into the soil. After planting, water the soil abundantly and cover with plastic wrap to create a greenhouse effect. You need to put boxes with planted seeds in a sunny place, but do not allow direct sunlight.
Under comfortable conditions, the seeds will germinate in about two weeks, or maybe even earlier. After the shoots appear with plastic wrap, you need to remove and place the boxes with seedlings in a sunny place where there are no drafts. When the seedlings grow by about five centimeters, then it must be thinned out, leaving only the strongest and strongest shoots. Unnecessary seedlings should be removed carefully, not pulling them out completely, but simply pinching the stem to the very root. In order for the chamomile to bush well, pinching should be carried out over the third or fourth leaf.
Planting chamomile in open ground
It is necessary to plant seedlings in open ground no earlier than after four to six weeks. The place for planting chamomile should be in a sunny part of the garden. In terms of soil, garden chamomile prefers neutral or chamomile. Before planting, it is imperative to thoroughly dig up the soil and apply a complex of balanced fertilizers, which is designed specifically for flowering garden plants and contains all the necessary trace elements and minerals. Seedlings should be planted at a distance of 30 cm from each other. so that in the future the bushes do not interfere with each other's growth and development. After planting seedlings in open ground, it is necessary to water the soil abundantly and loosen it.
Garden chamomile care
After planting seedlings in open ground, watering should be regular and abundant for another two weeks. Then watering can be reduced to 2 times a week, in dry weather 3-4 times. After each watering, be sure to thoroughly loosen the soil so that oxygen gets into the soil, but this must be done with extreme caution so as not to damage the root system of chamomile, which grows close to the surface. In order for moisture to stay in the soil longer, you need to mulch it with peat or sawdust. It will also protect well from active growth of weeds around the plant. Weeds around the plant should be removed as needed, and under no circumstances should they be allowed to run. Since pests appear due to the weed. diseases can develop that lead to the death of the entire plant.
Top dressing and fertilizers
As an organic fertilizer for chamomile, both humus and compost with peat are excellent. It is advisable to apply such fertilizers to the soil even before planting seedlings. This will saturate it with useful substances and trace elements necessary for the normal growth and development of garden chamomile. Then you will need to carry out two more dressings, one during the period of active growth, and the second during the budding period. As fertilizers, specially developed balanced complexes of vitamins and minerals for flowering garden plants, which can be bought in almost every store for gardeners and summer residents, are excellent.
Chamomile after flowering
In order to collect the seeds, you must wait until the flowers are completely dry. Then you should choose the largest and strongest of them, carefully cut and place in a dry and well-ventilated place for another couple of weeks so that the seeds dry out. The dried flowers must be carefully peeled and the seeds must be poured into a paper bag. Store in a dry place out of direct sunlight. Such seeds remain viable for two to three years.
Chamomile in winter
Perennial daisies need preparation for wintering. Since many of them are not cold hardy. After the flowering period is over and the seeds are collected, it is necessary to cut the stems of the daisies, leaving about five centimeters from the root. Then you need to cover the rest of the daisies with foliage or sawdust, you can also cover it with a non-woven material.
Chamomile reproduces in two ways: by seed and by dividing the bush. Garden chamomile is a perennial plant, so every 2-3 years the flower should be transplanted to a new place, it is during this period that the bush can be divided. This will not only help increase the number of chamomile bushes in the garden, but also rejuvenate older bushes, they will begin to grow better and bloom abundantly, the bushes will become more lush and strong.
It is necessary to carry out transplantation and division from September to October. It is necessary to carefully dig out the roots of the chamomile and separate the roots with young shoots. Transplant the chamomile to a new place, which must be prepared in advance. Apply the necessary fertilizers to the soil and dig holes suitable for the roots. After transplanting, the plant should be watered abundantly and the soil surface should be mulched with sawdust or leaves.
The seedling planting method was described above. As for planting seeds in open ground, then it should be carried out in the fall. The seeds need to be planted in the soil and dug in, the strongest seeds will survive the winter and will sprout in early spring. Such a kind of natural selection for plants.
Diseases and pests
With improper care, garden chamomile can undergo various diseases and infections. The most common of these are powdery mildew, rust, fusarium and gray rot. If you do not notice the symptoms of the appearance of the above diseases in time, then they can completely destroy the plant. Since such infections affect the leaves, flowers, stem and even the root system. In order to prevent the appearance of these diseases, it is necessary to irrigate in a timely manner, loosen the soil and remove annoying weeds. apply fertilizers on time and mulch the soil on top with sawdust or dry leaves. If the plant does get sick, then it will have to be treated and this should be started as soon as possible. To do this, it is necessary to carefully and thoroughly spray the entire flower with a solution of special fungicides. Which help fight similar diseases of garden plants.
The main pests of garden chamomile are aphids, wireworms, thrips and star-winged fly. Getting rid of insects is very difficult, so it's best to keep them out. To do this, you must follow the rules for the care and cultivation of garden chamomile and carefully monitor your garden so that the plants that grow nearby are also not attacked by pests. If insects do appear, then you need to immediately spray the plant with special insectoacaricides.
Types and varieties of chamomile
Meadow chamomile or common daisy - such a perennial can grow up to one meter. The flowers are large, up to seven centimeters in diameter. The petals are white, and the tubular center is bright yellow. The most popular garden forms of meadow chamomile: Sanssouci, Mae Queen, Maxima Koenig.
Kuril chamomile - a variety of flowering chamomile. In height, such a daisy can only grow up to 20 cm, but despite this, its root system is strong and thickened. The flowers are large, sometimes they grow up to 8 cm.
Marsh chamomile or marsh chrysanthemum - this variety of chamomile is very low, rarely reaches 25 centimeters, but grows in a lush bush. Leaves are bright green. The flowers have an unusual shape, the leaves are white and short, and the middle is large and bright yellow.
Nivyanik the greatest - in height it can reach up to 1 m. Most of the rhizome is on the surface. The flowers are very large and spreading, they can grow up to 10 cm in diameter. The petals are white and grow in several rows, the middle is yellow. The flowers of this variety are very similar to chrysanthemum, hence the second name. Most popular varieties: Alaska, Beethoven, Stern von Antwerp, Schwabengrub, Little Princesses.
All about perennial chamomile planting cultivation care pests diseases feeding chamomile reproduction
Chamomile - the benefits and beneficial properties of chamomile
Chamomile is a pretty wild flower, familiar to everyone from childhood. Well, who among us has not guessed on the chamomile "love - not love"! However, not only lovers know the benefits of chamomile, its beneficial properties in medicine, both folk and traditional, are widely appreciated. Dried chamomile flowers are one of the most common medicines that are part of a home first-aid kit, they are used to make tea, broth, infusion, and are used both internally and externally.
The beneficial properties of chamomile are truly amazing, its chemical composition endows this plant with literally miraculous powers. Chamomile flowers contain a valuable essential oil, consisting of sexviterpenoids: chamazulene, farnesene, bisabolol, bisabololoxides. Chamomile oil also contains monoterpenes: cadinene, myrcine, isovaleric and nonylic acids.
A lot of chamomile flowers also contain flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, quercetin), they endow the plant with powerful antibacterial, antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, chamomile contains coumarins, choline, phytosterol, fatty acid glycerides, polysaccharides.
The effect of chamomile on the body
The substances that make up chamomile have a whole spectrum of beneficial effects, they disinfect, relieve spasms, and reduce gas formation in the intestines. Chamomile has a beneficial effect on the functioning of the digestive tract: it enhances the secretion of gastric juice, bile, stimulates appetite, while softening the mucous membrane of the digestive system. Thanks to the mucus that is part of the flowers, chamomile has adsorbing properties and absorbs toxins and slags. At the same time, it has an enveloping effect on the intestines, reduces its sensitivity and irritation, while relieving spasms and reducing pain.
Chamomile is widely used to treat and relieve symptoms of flatulence, diarrhea, gastritis, colitis, intestinal cramps and other digestive disorders, and to stimulate the gallbladder and ducts.
The beneficial properties of chamomile allow it to be used in the treatment of many viral, infectious and bacterial diseases. The benefits of chamomile infusion as a diaphoretic and antipyretic agent have been known for a long time, they drink it for colds, sore throats, flu, ARVI.
Chamomile is an excellent sedative for healthy sleep and relaxation. A cup of chamomile tea at night will calm the nerves, relieve tension, and speed up falling asleep.
Why chamomile is useful for the face
It is known that in the distant 15th century, people already extracted medicinal oil from chamomile, used it to rejuvenate the face. Ladies of the court and simple peasant women used chamomile infusions in order to preserve youth and beauty.
- Vitamin A helps to increase the elasticity of the skin, making it more silky.
- Sesquiterpene carbohydrates protect the skin from external factors.
- Flavonoids successfully resist UV radiation.
- Organic acids penetrate deeply into the epidermis and purify, moisturize, and whiten the skin.
- Caprylic acid, having antiseptic properties, relaxes the facial muscles and promotes the rapid penetration of valuable substances into the deep layers of the skin.
- Azulene resists inflammation, while protecting the skin from acne and acne.
- Hamazulen, which is present in large quantities in chamomile oil, protects the skin from allergenic manifestations.
- Coumarin helps cells regenerate.
- Polysaccharides retain moisture and serve as a protective shield.
- Sitosterol delivers oxygen to cells and is a stimulating force for active microcirculation of oxygen.
Bus route information Priozersk - Daisies number 619 (13:40)
According to the timetable, the Priozersk-Romashki bus number 619 starts moving from the Priozersk station at 2021-03-21 13:40:00. The bus arrives at the terminal station of Chamashki at 2021-03-21 15:06:00. The total travel time of the bus is 1 hour 26 minutes. The total downtime at stops is 25 minutes.
The bus route contains the following stops: Krasnoarmeyskaya street, "Optics", Zarechnaya street, Leningradskaya street, Leskhoz, Lugovaya, Pochinok, shop, Boiler room, Malaya Gorka, Tractornoye, Fruit, turn, Otradnoye, Mill Streams, Mill Streams, Solovyovka, Gardening " Ilyich ", Gromovo, railway station, Gromovo, Sukhodolye-3, Sukhodolye, Murynovka, Shumilovo-2, Shumilovo-1, Sapernoe, turn, Rechnoye, Pontonnoye.
On our website you have the opportunity to find out the route and the schedule of stops of the Priozersk - Romashki bus online. If you have not purchased bus tickets yet, please contact the ticket office of the nearest bus station.
Chamomile - gardening
Ornamental deciduous shrubs are pruned annually in early spring.
Ornamental deciduous shrubs are pruned annually in early spring.
Deciduous species are easier to transplant than conifers and evergreen deciduous trees.
The growth, development and productivity of fruit trees largely depend on the degree of their resistance to frost.
The aerial part with flowers is used. Action - diuretic, laxative and diaphoretic, emollient and anti-inflammatory.
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Homemade Chamomile Facial Recipes
At home, the medicinal plant is used in different ways, but in order for the medicinal substances to not lose their relevance, the rules for the preparation of potions should be observed.
A real healing broth is prepared from dried plant flowers and boiling water in a water bath for at least half an hour. After which the broth is insisted for another 20 minutes. The proportions can be different, depending on the purpose of the treatment. A weaker consistency is suitable for washing, and an infusion of strong concentration is used to combat acne.
If you freeze the broth in special ice boxes, you get an excellent tonic for the face. Ice cubes made from chamomile broth rejuvenate, moisturize and tone up. You can wipe your face with them two or three times a day.
The results from daily procedures will not keep you waiting long, you will feel positive changes in a few days.
The proportions for the preparation of the infusion: two small tablespoons of dry chamomile herb per 100 ml of water. It is better to prepare the infusion in a thermos.
The cream for acne and blackheads is prepared as follows: cook 3 tablespoons of chamomile for 10 minutes, then insist for an hour. Melt butter in an amount (200 g) and pour into its broth. We boil the mixture for 15 minutes, the excess moisture should evaporate. Squeeze the juice from the lemon and add it to the oil mass. Store the cream in the refrigerator.
Chamomile face mask
The universal mask is suitable for any skin, it is used up to twice a week and is prepared as follows:
- chamomile - 2 tablespoons
- milk - 4 tablespoons
- cucumber, chopped avocado in half.
Mix the ingredients and let it brew. Use for face and décolleté.