6 of the best edible wild berries with names

6 of the best edible wild berries with names

Wild berries are a tasty and healthy product. Chefs use them to prepare masterpieces, and housewives find applications for berries in all spheres of life.

Edible forest berries

You can pick berries during the summer, autumn and even in winter. The very first to appear are strawberries and strawberries. They are best harvested in early summer, when the berries are ripe and flavorful. For lingonberries, blueberries, drupes and blueberries, they go to the coniferous forests. Berries such as cranberries and cloudberries grow near damp places. Most often in swamps or near streams or rivers. Raspberries and blackberries will be an excellent dessert. However, when going to the forest, you need to pay attention that not all berries are edible. Poisonous berries are life-threatening! The most popular edible berries are listed below.

Lingonberry

Intense flavored lingonberry growing in dry areas of pine forests. These are small bushes with bright scarlet berries. You need to pick lingonberries by the end of summer - in the fall, when the berries are full and become dark coral in color. Fruits contain a lot of sugar, so good jams and jams are obtained from lingonberries.... They use not only berries, but also leaves. They have disinfectant and other useful properties.

Stone berry

A plant with shoots creeping on the ground, only 30 cm high. The fruits of the stone fruits are very similar in appearance to raspberries, both in shape and in color. In each drupe of the fruit, there is one bone. The berry tastes like a ripe pomegranate.... The berry is widely used. It is often used for drinks and desserts. Tea is brewed with the leaves. It turns out fragrant, but slightly viscous. Homemade wine is made from the berries and even added to the production of vinegar and shampoos.

Blueberry

These large berries are dark blue in color and can be easily confused with blueberries. You can tell them apart by the size of the bush. The blueberry bush is 30 cm high, while the blueberry grows on the 90 cm high bush. The blueberry pulp is a watery structure with a greenish tint. You can pick berries in various types of forests. Most often, the berry grows in the hills and mountains. When picking blueberries, you must carefully ensure that the wild rosemary leaves do not get into the basket along with the berries.... The leaves are poisonous. Causes drowsiness, dizziness, and fainting. On the other hand, blueberry leaves contain a lot of beneficial properties. On their basis, teas are brewed, infusions are made and used in cooking.

It is not recommended to give blueberries to children under 1.5 years of age, to use lactating and pregnant women. Eating berries is dangerous with the risk of diathesis.

Blueberry

One of the healthiest berries. Has a bluish-black color. Blueberries are a strong colorant. Having eaten a handful, a painted tongue can be observed for a long time. Grows on small bushes in damp and shaded areas. The berry is widely used in medicine. Blueberries contain many beneficial properties that help fight the formation of tumors, scurvy, and improve vision performance.... The berry is useful for losing weight. The substances contained in blueberries contribute to the process of accelerating the metabolism. It is better to eat fresh berries, but for the winter you can dry or freeze blueberries.

Due to a one-time consumption of berries in large quantities, digestive problems may occur.

Elder

A medium-sized black berry, in appearance it resembles a black currant. You can find it both in the shady and warmed up by the sun. Grows on shrubs or low trees. The best time to harvest elderberries is late summer - early fall... At this time, the berries ripen and become the most useful for humans.

It is imperative to pay attention to the fact that black elderberries contain only useful substances, and red ones are poisonous to humans.

Unripe elderberries, foliage and flowers are dangerous. For medicinal purposes, the berry is used in dried and processed form.... To preserve the elderberry for the winter, you need to pay attention to the storage conditions. The berry is quite susceptible to temperature and humidity.

Cranberry

Small, creeping shrubs with an evergreen color. Berries are common in all corners of the globe, but the best climatic conditions for wild-growing cranberries are high humidity and low temperatures. The fruits have a dense skin and a fiery red color. The berry has a specific, sour taste. Usually, the collection of cranberries begins in August, but the fruits can hold out on the plant until the beginning of spring, while retaining all the useful substances, and there are quite a few of them in cranberries. Has great value as a medicinal plant, used in cooking for the preparation of drinks and various dishes... It has the property of being stored for a long time in frozen and dried forms.

Berries are contraindicated for people with intestinal diseases and acid-sensitive tooth enamel.

Advantages and disadvantages

All varieties and types of garden berries were bred on the basis of their forest ancestors. However, berries grown in horticultural conditions do not receive the same unique set of elements as when grown in a forest. It has long been known that wild berries are tastier and healthier. They are often used in pharmacology and medicine.

The main beneficial properties of wild berries are:

  1. Berries grown in wild forests are not contaminated by civilization... They absorb those beneficial substances that nature and the surrounding plants provide, without the addition of chemicals or fertilizers.
  1. Fruit contain a large amount of antioxidants, which remove toxins from the body, help maintain a figure in good shape, slow down aging, prevent diseases of the cardiovascular system, deterioration of general well-being, apathy, and sleep disturbances.
  2. Berries do not accumulate heavy metals... All harmful substances are retained in the roots, stems, leaves of plants. Therefore, when collecting foliage, you should pay attention to whether there are nearby industrial enterprises or routes.
  3. Eating wild berries allows you to preserve consumed vitamins for a long time... Which is the key to well-being in the winter.
  4. Many berries significantly reduce the risk of malignant tumors.
  5. Antiseptic properties of fruits useful for those who suffer from diseases of the bladder and kidneys.
  6. Blueberry contains substances that reduce the likelihood of blood clots in the vessels and the development of atherosclerosis.
  7. When using wild berries improves visual acuity... Researchers have proven that with the daily use of natural forest berries, in a modern lifestyle, good eyesight is maintained up to 55 - 60 years.
  8. A berry such as raspberry is often used as an antipyretic agent.... When sweat is excreted, the body is cleansed of the substances accumulated due to an improper lifestyle. Raspberry strengthens the immune system, which allows you to more effectively fight colds and other viral diseases.
  1. Not only berries have medicinal properties, but also foliage, flowers, and sometimes plant roots. On their basis, infusions are made and teas are brewed. Plant parts can be used both fresh and dried.... Leaves have the ability to lower blood sugar.
  2. The use of red berries, helps to increase hemoglobin in the blood... This is especially useful for elderly people. Before use, you need to pay attention to contraindications, if any.
  3. Of course, wild berries have a real rich smell and taste... They absorb the aromas of the forest: pine needles, herbs and others. Can be used for making desserts, sauces, drinks. Berry delicacies will be useful for children. They will help strengthen and protect the child's body from harm.

Wild berries have few disadvantages, which are lost against the background of the list of merits. But it is still worth paying attention to them.

You need to eat berries in moderation. The fanatical use of berries in all walks of life can lead to health problems:

  1. Disruption of the gastrointestinal tract
  2. The appearance of rashes, redness, and in the subsequent development of allergies
  3. The emergence of dental problems: the destruction of tooth enamel, the development of caries, increased sensitivity.

You need to be careful about the use of berries for people with diseases of the pancreas and liver, since an excess of certain substances can negatively affect the organs.

Wild berries are a storehouse of useful substances and taste. Their moderate use can give a long life, reduce the risk of disease and simply strengthen the body.... And, of course, aromatic forest berries will be a good addition to culinary masterpieces.


Summary of the final lesson "Forest mushrooms and berries" in the senior group

Nadezhda Bausheva
Summary of the final lesson "Forest mushrooms and berries" in the senior group

Summary of the final lesson in the senior group of kindergarten.

Subject: «Forest berries and mushrooms».

purpose: to give an idea of ​​edible and poisonous mushrooms and berries introduce the names mushrooms and berries teach to distinguish mushrooms and berries by the pictures and those signs that are given in riddles to teach to compare berries by color and size.

Materials and equipment: Images forest and garden berries, edible and inedible mushrooms paper cut parts small and large mushrooms: hats, legs, dummies mushrooms and berries sheets of paper cut into shape "Box", paints, brushes.


Secrets of Getting an Early Harvest

Experienced gardeners know that it is worth trying for a good harvest. The main key to success in the strawberry business is to install a greenhouse. An uncomplicated design will help the bushes not freeze and bloom in a comfortable temperature.

To build a greenhouse you will need:

  • agrofibre
  • film
  • plastic or metal arcs.

It is better to cover perennial bushes in the fall. When strawberries bloom in the spring, it's important to keep an eye on the ambient temperature. When warming up to +15, the bushes under the film can "cook", since the internal climate reaches +30. To prevent this, it is important to open the garden for the day and wrap it back in the evening.

Such simple manipulations will allow you to get a crop 7-10 days earlier than expected.


Sweet honeysuckle: the best varieties for the Moscow region

When deciding which honeysuckle to plant in the Moscow region, one must take into account that its fruits are rich in vitamins, have a specific taste, contain pectin, sugars, anthocyanins, and trace elements. In terms of the content of vitamins C, they are practically not inferior to lemons. They are recommended for use in case of vitamin deficiency in the spring, when the body, weakened after the winter cold, needs ascorbic acid. In terms of iodine content, they are second only to blackberries and many beloved strawberries.

Since all edible varieties are self-fertile, at least two different shrubs are placed on the site to ensure proper pollination, and preferably 4-5.

It is better not to acquire seaside representatives, prone to repeated autumn flowering, for the Moscow region, since in the presence of such a property, a decrease in winter hardiness and plant productivity is observed. It is advisable to select specimens with different ripening periods, then it will be possible to feast on the harvest for more than a month. At the same time, do not forget that the key to high yields is timely pruning of honeysuckle in spring or autumn.

    Viola, Morena, Bakcharsky giant, Sineglazka, Blue bird or Pushkin.

  • Malvina, Violet, Gerda, Chernichka and others.

  • Chosen One, Steadfast and Selena.

The largest ones with a mass exceeding 1 g: Cinderella, undersized Chosen One, Pavlovskaya, Morena and others. If you compare with blackberries, then the berries will be smaller, but sweeter. For example, the Thornfrey blackberry (variety description) boasts fruits weighing 4-5 g.

The best sweet varieties for growing in the Moscow region:

    Long-fruited honeysuckle is a shrub that is adapted to the cold spring. This is an early ripening variety, the fruits appear in early June. The berries are elongated, larger than most varieties, blue, with a white bloom and delicate sweet and sour pulp. The long-fruited variety gives a good yield - up to 3 kg per plant. Ornamental value - spreading thin branches covered with dark green rounded foliage.

When honeysuckle ripens in the Moscow region: rules and timing of collection

The timing depends on the specific variety. The plant one way or another begins to bear fruit one of the first among the fruit crops on the site. Ripening lasts 1-1.5 months. The first crop is harvested 7-10 days earlier than strawberries.

Early ripe bushes delight with a delicacy in the first half of June, mid-ripening - June 18-30, late - in early July.

  1. The peculiarity of honeysuckle is the quick shedding of the crop. To prevent this from happening, it is necessary to provide the bush with a sufficient amount of moisture. If you do not increase watering during the ripening of the fruits, even unripe berries will crumble.
  2. The collection is carried out as it ripens. If you do not remove ripe berries, the bush will drop them so that the remaining ovaries will also ripen.
  3. If the culture does not have resistance to shedding berries, it is recommended to lay a film under the bush during their ripening period. The fruits will fall on it without getting dirty on the ground, and the gardener will not have to carefully monitor the ripening process.

The average yield of edible honeysuckle is 3-4 kg per plant. Some varieties are capable of producing only up to 2 kg of berries, especially fertile ones - up to 5 kg. Fruiting takes place on annual wood, the first maximum yield is obtained by 7-8 years of shrub growth on the site. Fruiting actively lasts up to 25 years.

The size of the harvest depends on many factors. Weather conditions during flowering significantly affect fruiting. If, at the time of bud formation, the temperature indicator exceeds + 25 ° C, then the flower disappears ahead of time, without having time to pollinate. It is worth considering that flowering lasts a day. In the rainy season, the weight of the fruit is 15-18% more.


Lamellar and tubular edible mushrooms: photos and names

Above, we have already described several types of the most valuable edible mushrooms, but most of them belong to the tubular species, for example, porcini and Polish mushrooms, mushrooms or boletus.

Nevertheless, among the delicious edible species there are many plate-like ones:

  1. Russula: in young specimens, the cap is rounded, but as it grows up, it evens out and becomes flat. The hue of the flesh can also vary, from pale green to red (Figure 12). The pulp is very fragile, but does not change color when cut. It is the russula that is most often confused with the pale toadstool, so if you are not sure about the edibility of the specimen, it is better not to put it in the basket.
  2. Ryzhiki: found mainly near pines and larches. In young saffron milk caps, the cap is rounded, but with aging it begins to resemble a funnel, and its color can range from orange to bluish-green, while it is smooth and sticky to the touch. The pulp on the cut turns green over time.
  3. Pink wave: got its name from the characteristic color and pattern on the cap. There is a small depression in its center, and the edges of the cap itself are slightly bent inward. The pulp has a dense structure and white color, and when cut, white juice begins to stand out. In twins, the caps are often covered with scales, and its surface may have a greenish tint.In addition, inedible counterparts have less white flesh.
  4. Rows: a fairly common type of lamellar mushrooms, and there are quite a few types of rowers. They differ in the color of the cap and flesh (there are even bright purple species), as well as the harvest period. Experienced mushroom pickers can harvest a rich harvest of rowers from early spring to late autumn.
Figure 12. Popular lamellar species: 1 - russula, 2 - mushrooms, 3 - pink wave, 4 - rows

Honey mushrooms, which can be found in forests throughout the year, are considered no less popular.


The most poisonous berries in Russia

May lily of the valley

Lily of the valley is a favorite of many people. This is a beautiful plant that, during the flowering period (May-June), emits an amazing aroma, which is impossible to pass by. But by September, red berries appear in place of the charming flowers, sometimes shimmering in orange. In appearance, the fruits are similar to a pea, they are all poisonous and are strictly prohibited for human consumption.

Signs of poisoning with poisonous fruits are the presence of tinnitus, headache, rare pulse and seizures.

Maiden grapes (five-leafed)

This plant can now often be found in the country and even in Moscow. Despite the fact that this is a grape, and its small berries resemble the grapes we are used to, it is still better not to use it. The berries have an unpleasant, pungent taste and are very tight in the mouth. This nuance can save you from trouble, since for severe poisoning you will need to eat a handful of such berries.


Maiden grapes (five-leafed)

Nightshade

Often in the forest you can find a small bush of pepper with small peppers, although the fruits are more like tomatoes. Do not rush to pick these peppers - these are the fruits of the bittersweet nightshade, the closest relative of potatoes and tomatoes. Its fruits have a bittersweet taste and are very poisonous.


Nightshade

Bittersweet nightshade

Despite the rather beautiful flowering, this representative of the wild is the owner of wild red fruits. They are bittersweet to taste and very few people will like it. Berries ripen by October. Most often you can meet the "gifts" of nature in Russia, Siberia and the Far East. Not only berries are poisonous in nightshade, but also the leaves themselves.

Signs of poisoning are the presence of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, cardiovascular failure.

Nightshade black

Today, black nightshade fruits are used in medicine in minimal quantities and established dosages. Having stumbled upon a plant in the forest, in no case need to taste the berries: the representative of the plant world is completely poisonous. The fruits grow in the form of round, attractive, black berries.

Belladonna

This plant can be found in other sources under the names mad berry or sleepy stupor. During flowering, belladonna has single, drooping flowers in the form of bells. The fruit is a black and blue berry with a sour taste that is poisonous.

Signs of poisoning are the presence of dryness and burning in the mouth, impaired speech and swallowing, rapid heart rate. Loss of orientation and the appearance of hallucinations are possible.

Fragrant Kupena

The representative of lily and lily of the valley grows in Eurasia and North America. Despite the extraordinary and attractive leaves of the plant, the bluish-black berries are poisonous. Today, the fruits and leaves of the plant are used in medicine and are considered medicinal, but in case of an overdose, they can cause significant harm to human life.

Buckthorn fragile

This shrub can often be found in the forest, and often its fruits are confused with cherry berries. But unlike the last berry, the buckthorn is brittle and poisonous.


Buckthorn fragile

Forest honeysuckle

The fruits of this shrub are very similar to red currants, but differ from it in the location of the berries - red translucent berries sit in pairs at the very surface of the branch. This is forest honeysuckle. And, despite the fact that its berries are pecked by birds, they are still poisonous to humans.


Forest honeysuckle

Wolf bast

No less spectacular are the attractive red berries of wolf bast, partly similar to sea buckthorn. As the name implies, eating the berries of this plant will not do anything good. All parts of the plant and especially the berries are poisonous.


Wolf bast

Red-fruited raven

The next plant that attracts with bright red shiny berries is the red raven. All parts of the plant are poisonous, not to mention the berries. And the juice, when it comes into contact with the skin, causes burns up to the appearance of blisters.


Red-fruited raven

Snowberry white

The snowberry is considered one of the most "surviving" plants. Its fruits remain on the branches or on the ground for a long time (even with severe cold snaps). The berries of the plant are pale pink or white. In addition, the beads burst delightfully underfoot, making a unique sound. Since you can often find snowberries in settlements, children are the first victims who can taste them.

Signs of poisoning include nausea, dizziness and loss of consciousness.

Aronnik spotted

The plant is perennial and poisonous. However, it is often used in medicine and is considered safe only if overdose is avoided. The fruits of this plant are reddish in color. You can meet the spotted arum in the forests of Moldova, Ukraine, Central Europe and the Caucasus.

American phytolacca

Quite often, the plant can be found even in city flower beds. Unfortunately, not everyone knows that it is completely poisonous: leaves, inflorescences, fruits are carriers of harmful substances. Young children are especially susceptible to the influence of poison. Phytolacca berries are lilac in color and are arranged vertically.

Signs of poisoning are increased salivation, burning in the mouth, cramps in the stomach or intestines.

Euonymus

The fruit of this plant has an attractive bright pink color. They grow in four separate capsules containing black seeds inside. The pulp of poisonous berries is fleshy, orange or red. Basically, the plant is found in Russia, Kazakhstan, Sakhalin. After consumption, a person may notice a deterioration in well-being. At high doses, intestinal bleeding is possible.

Going into nature, you need to have an idea of ​​all the dangers that a person may face. If it so happened that someone close to him ate poisonous berries, it is necessary to provide first aid in case of poisoning. This will help save a person's life. The first thing that is recommended to do is induce vomiting in the victim and immediately call an ambulance (go to the hospital). Before the arrival of the medical staff, it is recommended to rinse the stomach and wrap the person warmly.

There is no need to try unfamiliar berries in the forest, because the consequences of a momentary temptation can be irreversible.

Spiky raven

Also poisonous and the colleague of the previous plant - spiked raven. The only difference is that the berries are matte black. An inexperienced traveler or child may mistake them for chokeberry or bird cherry. These two Vorontsov have a distinctive feature, for which they are popularly called "stinker" - the plants emit a strong unpleasant odor.


Spiky raven

Elderberry herbal

Probably everyone knows the red elderberry, and that it is poisonous. But this elder has a sister - herbal elderberry (not to be confused with black) - this plant is also entirely poisonous. Even if you've heard that elderberry jam is delicious, refrain from eating fresh berries.


Elderberry herbal

Marsh calla

The plant blooms in late spring and early summer. This is a truly beautiful picture, only the calla fruits are unusually dangerous for humans. Juicy red berries are gathered in bunches and, when consumed, can cause nausea, shortness of breath, tachycardia, vomiting and severe salivation. The whole plant is poisonous.

Lakonos or American phytolacca

Another plant about which you can read that jam is made from it is Lakonos or American phytolacca. Now this plant can be found not only in the forests of the southern regions of Russia, but also as decorative plantings in garden plots. Lakonos perfectly tolerates our winters, and in the wild I happened to meet him already in the Tula region. The plant is powerful, has spike-shaped inflorescences, which later look like spikes with beautiful black-purple berries. Numerous studies have shown that although berries are not poisonous, they contain many substances harmful to humans.


Lakonos or American Fitolacca

Yew berry

The next plant that is better to just admire is berry yew. Among the juicy soft needles, red beads, like lights, attract attention. But you should always remember that yew is poisonous - due to the high content of various poisonous compounds, this tree has a high bactericidal action, and in ancient times its wood was highly valued for this property. The second property follows from the first - due to its bactericidal nature, wood was used to make sarcophagi, in some countries the people paid tribute with it. When the number of yews noticeably decreased, furniture began to be made from its wood - it was highly valued for its strength and red color. All this gradually led to the fact that the yew is now listed in the Red Book. What does not prevent it from now being bred in nurseries and used in decorative plantings. The only edible part of the yew berries is their flesh. But I would recommend refraining from experience, since the bones contain the strongest poisons.


Yew berry

Common privet

Also, like yew, common privet can now be found within the city - hedges are made from it, suitable for haircuts. And if in urban conditions you are unlikely to see it with berries, then in the southern regions, in the wild, you will meet it, and you can confuse fruits with bird cherry. Among the people, privet is better known as wolf berries, which once again speaks of the toxicity of its fruits.


Common privet

Raven Eye (Completely Poisonous Berry)

It is easy to recognize by its four wide oval leaves, although there are five or six. It has a blue berry color and blooms in late spring. This shade-loving plant is dangerous in its entirety - its different parts negatively affect the human body.


Are the berries of barberry, bird cherry and rose hips edible?

Barberry (Berberis) - a genus of shrubs of the barberry family.

Spread. It is found in the north of Russia to St. Petersburg, as well as in Southern and Central Europe, Crimea, the Caucasus, Persia, Eastern Siberia, North America. Some species are found in Central Asia, including in the mountains of the Trans-Ili Alatau in Kazakhstan. On page 250: Barberry

Description. Evergreen, semi-evergreen or deciduous shrubs with thin, erect, ribbed shoots. The bark is brownish or brownish gray. Leaves are collected in bunches, 4 on shortened shoots. Leaves are ovate, articulating with a short petiole, finely ciliate or entire. Flowers in racemes on short lateral branches. Corolla of 6 yellow petals, 6 stamens, 1 pistil. Fruit is a berry, ovoid or spherical, 0.8-1.2 cm long, black or red. The seeds are rolled, ribbed, brown, 4-6 mm long.

Many people are interested in whether barberry berries are edible, and how can they be used? The fruits of this plant are used in cooking, more often in dried form as a seasoning for meat, for making sauces and tinctures. Honey plant.

Bird cherry (Padus avium).

Description. A woody plant from the rose family, growing wild in shrubs, in forests, all over Russia, up to the White Sea. Branched stem reaches up to 10 m in height. Leaves alternate, oblong-elliptical, pointed, sharp-serrate, drooping stipules at the top of the petiole at the base of the plate, two glands. White (less often pinkish) fragrant flowers are collected in long drooping racemes. There are five sepals and petals, many stamens, one pistil. The fruit is a black drupe.

Suffice it to recall the beneficial properties of the fruits of this plant, and the answer to the question "are cherry berries edible" will become obvious: this is a wonderful general strengthening gift of the forest, very useful for the stomach and intestines.

Rosehip (Rubus canina).

Dog rose, growing wild, is known under the general name "dog rose". In European Russia, there are several types of wild roses ("rose hips"), the most common of which are: rose hips, sirbarinniks, serbolina, chiporas, dog-roses, and thornships.

Description. It is a shrub up to 2 m tall, growing in the forest, in ravines and in the fields. Branches are thorny, young ones with straight subulate thorns, old ones with bent thorns located on flowering branches in pairs at the base of the petioles. The leaf consists of five to seven oval or oblong serrate on the underside of bluish leaves. The flowers are large, pink, single or collected in three (rarely four to five). Sepals are whole, exceeding the petals and converging upward with fruits. The receptacle with fruits is smooth, spherical, red.

Previously, its roots were used against rabies, hence the Latin name ઼ anina ”(dog rose). Rosehip fruits contain a large amount of vitamin C, and they are used in the form of infusion, syrup for prevention and vitamin deficiency.

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