Your own strawberries are more fragrant and healthier than purchased ones. But in order to enjoy juicy berries in summer, you need to prepare in advance. Even in the fall, it is necessary to purchase seedlings of garden strawberries and plant them, following the recommendations of specialists.
Planting strawberries in the fall: the main stages
The most favorable time to settle a common berry on your site is autumn. At this time, it is already not hot and it often rains, which contributes to the rapid rooting of seedlings. The main bonus is that a full-fledged early harvest is already being harvested from the bushes of the autumn planting next season. However, remontant varieties are still preferable to plant in spring.
If you plant strawberries in September, then in June you can enjoy sweet berries
Before frost, strawberries need to completely take root, so they are planted at the beginning of the climatic autumn. In most regions of Russia, the favorable period begins in mid-August and lasts until the end of September.
It takes about a month to root, so the main rule is to plant strawberries no later than 30 days before the onset of cold weather. It is better not to delay: the worse the bushes take root, the less the harvest will be, since the laying of fruit buds in most varieties occurs precisely in the fall. Well-rooted strawberries are also frost-resistant.
Only well-rooted strawberries are not afraid of snow
Table: favorable dates for autumn planting of strawberries by regions of Russia
|Region / zone||The beginning of the planting period||End of the planting period|
|Southern regions||Beginning of September||End of october|
|Central Black Earth Region||Beginning of September||Mid october|
|Middle lane||Mid august||End of September|
|Ural and Siberia||End of july||Mid august|
|Far East||Mid august||Mid september|
Garden strawberries are prone to damping, they do not like wetlands. If the site is flooded with spring waters, the plants are planted in high beds. Strawberries need sun all day to keep the berries sweet. Lack of light reduces the overall yield. Only in the southern regions is a little shading in the afternoon encouraged.
Garden strawberry grows well and bears fruit on sandy loam, loam and black soil. On heavier soils, it is suppressed due to root decay, and on too light soils, it suffers from a lack of moisture. Therefore, clayey soils are facilitated by introducing 2-3 buckets of sand per 1 m2... And the moisture capacity of sandy soils is improved by introducing 1–2 buckets of peat to the same area.
The berry shows the best results with soil acidity from 5 to 6.5 pH. And the permissible level of groundwater is at least 60–80 cm from the surface of the earth.
Suitable precursors for strawberries:
It is not recommended to plant the berries in the area where the nightshade grew:
These crops are affected by the same diseases (brown spot, late blight, Fusarium blight, verticillium wilting) and pests.
Like nightshades, strawberries are affected by brown spot, late blight, fusarium, verticillium wilting.
Regular strawberries are grown in one location for only 3 years. Then the land is depleted, you have to look for a new site for it. Due to the intense fruiting for remontant varieties, experts advise changing the planting site annually.
Store-bought berries are often watery and tasteless, as they are grown in greenhouses using solely mineral fertilizers. But strawberries prefer decomposed organic matter. Therefore, the site for it is prepared in advance: the soil is dug onto the bayonet of a shovel and add from 5 to 15 kg of humus and 2 glasses of ash per 1 m2... This is done at least 2 weeks, and preferably a month before planting, so that the soil evenly settles. With a shortage of manure, the land is filled with another set:
- compost - 1 bucket;
- superphosphate and urea - 2 matchboxes each;
- potassium salt - 1 tbsp. l. with the top.
The listed fertilizers can be replaced by the introduction of 2 tbsp. nitrofocks for 1 m2.
Nitrophoska can replace other fertilizers for strawberries
Far-sighted summer residents prepare the land for strawberries in the fall, a year before planting. The selected place is sown with lupine or mustard, which are mowed in spring and embedded in the ground. By autumn, the green mass of green manure will rot, and the composition of the soil will be much improved.
Annual lupine changes the acidic reaction of the soil to a neutral one
If pests are found during digging, spill the soil with insecticides, for example, Nemabactom, or a solution of ammonia (20 ml per bucket).
How to choose good seedlings
Healthy and strong strawberry bushes are a guarantee of a future harvest, therefore, the choice of seedlings and mustaches should be taken responsibly.
When buying on the market
When purchasing seedlings, pay attention to the signs indicating that the plants will take root perfectly:
- the bush has 3-5 green leaves without spots;
- the diameter of the root collar is about 6 mm;
- white intact roots at least 5 cm long.
The purchased seedlings dry out quickly, therefore, during transportation and storage, it is advisable to wrap up its roots with a wet cloth.
Correct seedlings have only light roots
Experienced gardeners insist: buy seedlings whose growth points, the so-called "hearts", are pink. If they are green, most likely, such bushes will bear few berries.
From your plantation
Ideally, the first rosettes of powerful mustaches are taken for strawberry propagation. It is believed that they will give the largest yield.
- The mustache can be rooted in advance by placing it in water, digging it in or placing a bowl of soil under it.
- To prevent young plants from flapping in the wind, they should be pinned to the ground with a hair pin or piece of wire.
- The excess part of the mustache must be pinched off, leaving a "tail" of 2-3 cm.
- Before planting in a permanent place at the outlet, it is necessary to cut off the "umbilical cord" - the mustache from the mother bush.
- Then the rooted plants can be planted in the garden.
Mustache can be rooted in bowls with soil
This is the usual way of preparing seedlings.
The "tails" of the mustache on the horn are left so that the seedlings subsequently sit firmly in the ground.
Experienced summer residents use another interesting method. If you look closely, each bush has several growth points - horns. Some bore fruit, while others did not. The former are popularly called female, the latter male. This can be determined by the presence of a flowering shoot. Seedlings should be taken only from the mustache of the female part of the bush. An important nuance: males are the first to throw out their mustaches, they will have to be cut off so that the strawberries are not depleted. Then you should wait until the female horn throws out the shoots, and use them for reproduction. It has been noticed that the plants obtained in this way bear fruit well.
The nicest mustache for seedlings will grow from the horns that bear fruit this year.
Video: secrets of choosing a mustache for breeding strawberries
It is better to plant seedlings in the afternoon, since only the planted plant does not absorb water well, which is necessary to cool the leaves. If you plant strawberries in the morning in the heat, they will simply burn in the sun.
Before planting, the roots of the seedlings are cut to 10 cm. If they are dry, they are soaked for 1-2 hours in water with the addition of humates or a root formation stimulator. After that, it is recommended to dip them in a clay mash. Such a measure will preserve moisture and improve survival. If you make a chatterbox on an infusion of garlic, then at the same time the plant will receive protection from gnawing insects.
Clay talker is used when rooting many plants when it is important to preserve all the roots.
The plan for placing bushes in the garden depends on the variety. Early strawberries are planted thicker. Mid-season and late varieties form powerful bushes and large leaves, so they are placed more freely. The most economical scheme from the point of view of the occupied area is carpet. The distance between the rosettes is 20-30 cm, the area of the plantation is arbitrary.
A ribbon pattern is considered more convenient for caring for strawberries. Planting is carried out in 1, 2 or 3 lines with the distance between early varieties - 30-40 cm, mid-ripening and late - 40-50 cm. 80-90 cm are left for row spacings. Such schemes are suitable specifically for growing strawberries, and not for reproduction. The whiskers that appear on strawberries in such beds are immediately cut off.
Depending on the variety, the distance between plants varies.
For subsequent reproduction with a mustache, the plants are placed on the bed with nests in the form of rhombuses, 4 bush at its corners. The distance between bushes in the nest is 10 cm, between the nests - 25 cm, row spacing - 70 cm.
Having chosen the scheme, they proceed to the main event.
- Loose and level the ground, mark the garden.
- Dig a hole 10-15 cm deep, depending on the length of the seedling roots.
- If the soil is not filled with fertilizers, pour a handful of mature humus or compost on the bottom, stir.
- Plant a closed-root plant.
- If the roots are bare, form a mound in the center of the hole and distribute the roots along its slopes, sprinkle with earth, compact the soil with your fingers, water.
- Mulch the trunk circle with peat, compost or humus.
Strawberries are planted in a hole 10-15 cm deep
An important point: the growth point of the bush must be flush with the soil. Otherwise, the plant will rot or freeze in winter. Also, avoid bending the roots when planting, this will impair the survival rate.
Wherever strawberries are planted, in a pot or open ground, make sure that the "heart" of the bush is at ground level
Video: planting strawberries correctly
Landing on covering material
Now many are switching to growing strawberries on a variety of mulch. This method has many advantages:
- moisture retains well, watering is needed less often;
- plant roots are protected from frost;
- weeding is almost not required;
- the mustache does not take root anywhere;
- leaves and berries do not lie on the ground, therefore they are always clean and not affected by slugs.
Used as mulch:
- agrofiber (lutrasil, spandbond);
- plastic wrap;
- roofing material;
- organic matter (coniferous litter, straw, sawdust).
Thanks to the covering material, the berries do not get dirty during rains or watering
The service life of a purchased covering material, spandbond or film is about 3 years. But this does not matter, since the strawberry after the same period should be transferred to a new place. Please note that the film is unlikely to be suitable for beds in the southern regions, the ground under it overheats a lot.
The most convenient mulch for strawberries is the black non-woven agrofiber. It has 2 useful properties: it "breathes" and passes moisture well, as it has the smallest holes and at the same time retains it. In addition, the opacity of the fiber completely suppresses the weeds. White agrofibre allows light to pass through. Sometimes, in an unattended garden bed, weeds "lift" the material above the strawberry bushes, which is unacceptable.
Preparing the soil for planting on agrofibre is carried out in the same way as for the usual one. The material is laid out on loosened soil, cross-shaped or round holes are cut into it, into which the seedlings are planted. Then it is important to securely fasten the agrofibre along the edges with the help of boards. It is necessary to ensure that the material is close to the ground. If necessary, it is pressed with bricks.
Growing strawberries on black agrofibre is a modern and convenient way
Video: arrangement of tall beds of strawberries under black spandbond
In the first 2 weeks after planting, strawberries are watered at the root as the soil dries, weeded, and the mustache is cut if they grow back. When spots appear on the leaves, the plants are sprayed with copper oxychloride, for example, with the HOM preparation.
HOM - copper oxychloride, an effective drug against many fungal diseases of strawberries and other crops
Before the onset of winter, it is advisable to mulch the beds, if this has not been done earlier. In cold climates, the bushes are additionally covered with spruce branches.
Sandy loam is a poor soil, but I managed to grow excellent early strawberries without manure on it. I turned to proven siderates. A year before planting, she sowed rye on the chosen garden bed in the fall, which she mowed in May, pulled the roots out of the ground, dried up for several days, and then embedded it into the soil. By August, the green manure had already rotted, the earth became like fluff. I dug up the ground, adding 2 glasses of ash per 1 m2... Then she planted strawberry bushes and the next summer harvested an excellent harvest of large and sweet berries. The decayed rye was enough for growth and fruiting.
Strawberries are usually taken 10 days after planting. This is noticeable by the fact that the leaves acquire a turgor and no longer lie on the ground. During this period, I feed her with a solution of potassium humate. As a result, strawberries always come out of winter alive and healthy.
I would like to share the method of laying agrofibre. I place it on the garden bed after planting the bushes. Planting seedlings in cross-shaped cuts in a spandbond or lutrasil is torment for me, so I cut it lengthwise into strips that I put in the aisles. Then I fasten the pieces of canvas between the bushes in several places with a stapler. This way I am sure that my seedlings are not buried, which often happens when planting in agrofibre holes "blindly".
Before planting strawberries, the soil in the garden must be fertilized, preferably organic. The most important nuances when planting: do not deepen the growth point and do not bend the roots. If possible, plant the plants on agrofibre, so they will require less maintenance, they will overwinter well, and the berries will remain clean in summer.
[Votes: 3 Average: 2]
How to grow strawberries
Every year the flow of citizens leaving for summer cottages is increasing. Country life is full of pleasures: fresh air, silence, natural beauty and the opportunity to grow vegetables, fruits, herbs and berries with your own hands. A traditional set grows in almost every summer cottage: raspberries, currants, gooseberries, strawberries, or as it is also called, garden strawberries. Growing strawberries does not require constant hassle, however, some rules of agricultural technology for garden strawberries still exist. Choosing a place, preparing the soil, selecting a variety: photos and videos with answers to basic questions on how to grow strawberries, you will find in this article.
When to start preparing for winter by region
The goal of the gardener should be to prepare the strawberry bushes in advance for winter. Indeed, after pruning or transplanting, plants need time to recover and adapt. They must have time to come to their senses, release new shoots and grow roots, so work cannot be carried out just before the frosts. The specific timing of the preparatory work depends on the region. Additionally, you need to pay attention to what the weather is like.
In outskirts of Moscow
The more time the strawberries have to recover, the better. Even if autumn spoils with warm weather, it is best to finish pruning the berries and process them in early September. Let the plants gain strength before sheltering for the winter, because fruiting seriously depletes the berries, especially for remontant varieties.
In the Urals
The peculiarity of the Ural climate is the unpredictability of the weather and the early probability of frost. It is not recommended to mow strawberries here for the reason that they will not have time to recover before the arrival of frost. When the berry is left without leaves, flower buds are laid reluctantly and the yield may decrease the next year.In the event that the plants are affected by ticks and fungal diseases, the leaves are cut a month earlier than in the Moscow region, that is, in July.
In the conditions of the short Siberian summer, strawberries of early maturing varieties are grown and they begin to prepare them for winter immediately after harvest. In early August, the old lower leaves and the remaining peduncles are removed from the plants. It is also necessary to remove from under the bushes the old mulch in which the gray mold spores have settled. Pruning is not carried out on young and healthy bushes. In the fall, they only feed and water the plants so that they continue to develop in the time remaining until winter.
In the Leningrad region
In the Leningrad region, rainy autumn is most often, so it is better to mow the bushes in August. In conditions of high humidity, fungal diseases and rot develop at an enormous rate. If you leave the foliage on the bushes, in the spring the strawberries will be affected by numerous diseases, the harvest will be of poor quality. It will be necessary to cover the plants after the ground is frozen. On the eve of this event, the ridge is cleaned from old plants, dried peduncles and excess mustaches.
When and where to plant garden strawberries
To plant strawberries, you need to choose a sunny area or a southwestern slope, where there are no strong winds and there is no stagnant water. The best precursors for garden strawberries are peas, beans, radishes, garlic, parsley, onions, beets, and carrots. But after tomatoes, potatoes, cabbage, pumpkins, sunflowers, zucchini and cucumbers, it is not recommended to plant a berry.
The soil should be light and fertile, air and moisture permeable. Strawberries do not like sandy and clayey soil. On a sandy one, its roots dry and overheat, and on clayey, due to a lack of oxygen and moisture, growth slows down. Also acidic and alkaline soils are not suitable for the plant.
Planting strawberries in late summer - early autumn is preferable for many summer residents, because the plant requires less maintenance than one planted in spring. You just need to carefully monitor the watering. For strawberries, a lack of water is just as undesirable as stagnation.
When choosing a place for landing, this factor must also be taken into account. If the groundwater in the area is close to the surface, you need to make high beds. And if your climate is hot and dry, then strawberries should be planted level with the ground so that they do not overheat and do not lose moisture.
It is preferable to complete the planting of garden strawberries in the northern regions by the end of August. In the middle lane and southern regions, it is better to do this before the first decade and the end of September, respectively.
Of those that have happened to grow, this strawberry I liked the most.
|Zarya||Early||Scarlet berries of medium sizes, oval shape|
|Pycapovka||Early||Sour-sweet fragrant spherical berries|
|Desna||Early||Large "fleshy" sweet and sour berries. Wrinkle during transportation|
|Pokachontac||Middle||Sweet and sour berry of red-orange color. Shallower at the end of the fruiting season|
|Festive||Middle||Juicy large fruits, oval or plump form|
|Mascot||Middle||Small berry: the top is lighter, the bottom is darker|
|Zengana||Late||Sour-sweet aromatic cherry color, wedge-shaped|
Be sure to give the strawberries a potassium and nitrogen supplement. Then the bushes will develop perfectly. I have 2 acres under the strawberries, but I pick berries in buckets.
- Root dressing (water under the bush) is carried out on damp ground so as not to burn the roots.
- Foliar (spraying the bushes) is carried out on a cloudy day or in the evening, so as not to burn the leaves. Remove leaves with signs of disease.
Strain the solution, your spray bottle or sprayer will not clog.
Planting in autumn
Autumn planting of strawberry seedlings is considered optimal, since a full harvest can be harvested from young bushes in the spring of next year. Plants planted in early spring will also start bearing fruit next season, but will have to be cared for all summer.
Before the autumn planting, the site should be processed and prepared in early spring, adding the necessary fertilizers. If every piece of land is valuable in the garden, these beds can be temporarily occupied with onions, garlic or celery, that is, early ripening vegetables.
Before planting seedlings in open ground, the roots should be treated with a preparation against the fungus (fungicide) and young plants should be kept in a cool place for several days.
Planting garden strawberries
Strawberry varieties require free planting according to the 60 × 60 scheme, and it is better if you have enough land, 75 × 75, since the diameter of a two-year-old bush is already 60 cm.For a bush, dig a hole 30x30x30 cm, fill with vegetable or well-rotted (at least 3 years ) manure humus. In the planting hole, add 1 teaspoon of complete complex fertilizer (nitroammofosk, ammofoskamide, etc.), 1-2 liters of fermented organic matter (bird droppings 1:20 or mullein 1:10), 2 liters of 0.02% potassium permanganate (dark - raspberry color). Mix all this thoroughly. Plant the bush so that the heart is at the level of the soil. It is imperative to mulch the soil around the bush by 5-6 cm so that a funnel of mulch forms, especially during autumn planting.
The main dressing should be carried out 3 times per season: 1st - in early spring after the snow melts and pruning of old leaves, 2nd - before flowering during budding (peduncle protrusion), 3rd - immediately after harvesting and trimming the leaves. These 3 dressings should be carried out according to the following scheme: first, sprinkle wood ash 2-3 glasses around the bush, followed by watering. After 2-4 days - a solution of a complete complex mineral fertilizer, 1 tbsp. spoon for 10 liters of water, 3-4 liters per bush. After another 2-4 days - liquid organic fertilizer (mullein 1:10 or bird droppings 1:20 diluted with water). After these dressings, mulch the soil around the bush.
When planting garden strawberries in the open field in spring, it is necessary to start feeding in a week according to the described scheme, but in a half dose. All large-fruited remontant varieties require a 4th additional feeding before re-flowering in August. But I feed the beardless small-fruited varieties of remontant strawberries with liquid mineral fertilizer with microelements (100 g per 10 liters of water), I feed the whole season in the country after 2 weeks, 0.2 liters under a bush. With this care, the berries are quite large and the yield is always high.
For reproduction, I take a mustache from one or two-year-old bushes, and pinch their peduncles. I set aside the first outlet so that the bush does not run out and give more standard full-fledged sockets.