The main problems with tomato seedlings and how to solve them

The main problems with tomato seedlings and how to solve them

It is believed that tomato seedlings from all vegetable crops are the least problematic when growing. But there are still unpleasant exceptions. Sometimes the stem begins to stretch, and spots of unknown origin appear on the leaves or the tips dry out. These problems can be easily avoided, and if they did not have time, then they can be solved.

Tomato seedlings are pulled

The main reason for this problem is insufficient lighting of the plants. Most often, seedlings are grown on small windowsills, in small boxes. I want to grow seedlings to the maximum, so a large number of plants grow in one container, which interfere with each other. Tomato seedlings should grow freely so that each seedling has free access to light. If necessary, you need to use additional lighting in the dark.

Another reason may be incorrect temperature conditions. At elevated air temperatures, the stem of plants becomes thinner, and the leaves lose strength. The average daytime temperature in the room should be in the range of 25-28 degrees, and with increased cloudiness - no more than 20 degrees. Indoor "tropical climate" will only harm tomato seedlings.

It is very important to follow the rules for watering seedlings. Water the plants only after the soil is completely dry. Excess moisture in the soil can also cause the seedlings to stretch out. You also need to be careful with feeding. They are introduced into the soil only when there are good reasons for this - the growth of the plant has slowed down, the color of the leaves has changed. Excess fertilization will lead to negative results.

Tomato seedlings turn pale and yellow, the leaves dry out and fall off

Here it is worth reminding again about proper lighting and moderate watering. Find a well-lit place in the room for seedlings, and sometimes take it out to a glassed-in balcony or loggia. Do not overdo it with watering either - tomatoes do not like constant humidity. The soil should dry out completely. Only then can it be watered.

You can try to save problem plants by applying a transplant to a new container and different soil. When transplanting, you need to thoroughly rinse the roots and make sure that they are in a healthy state. The affected roots indicate that the plant will definitely die, and there is no point in replanting it.

Tomato seedlings with white roots should be placed in slightly damp soil. Immediately carry out preventive watering with a weak manganese solution (no more than twenty milliliters for each plant) and place the containers with seedlings in a well-lit sunny place.

If the roots are slightly damaged during transplantation, then the seedlings may wither in bright light. In this case, it is better to keep the plants in partial shade for some time until they get stronger. In the future, it is worth observing all the usual care rules for tomatoes - a sufficient amount of light and moderate watering.

With timely proper watering and good lighting, problems with leaves on seedlings can only be due to a lack of some nutrients. Various dressings will be able to compensate for their lack. The main thing is to correctly identify this missing element. The changed color of the foliage will help in this.

The tips of the leaves dry out in tomato seedlings

This problem, which is common in many plants, can have many different causes.

One of the most common reasons is too dry indoor air. If this is true, then dry tips of the leaves will be not only in tomato seedlings, but on all plants at once. You can raise the level of humidity using any containers with water, which are placed next to the plants.

Another reason may be "salty" soil. It is visible on the characteristic spots of white or yellow on the surface layer of the soil. Such soil not only does not provide the seedlings with the necessary nutrition, but also takes some nutrients. Because of this, the entire plant suffers, but primarily the leaves.

This condition of the soil happens due to unnecessary fertilizing and the use of hard water for irrigation. You can save the seedlings. To do this, you need to get rid of the topsoil and replace it with a new one. In the next fifteen days, you should not apply any fertilizers. For irrigation, it is advisable to use only purified or melt water.

And another possible cause of this problem may be a lack of potassium. It is usually found in acidic soils. To compensate for the deficiency of this nutrient, you can use several dressings. As a fertilizer, an infusion based on wood ash or on a banana peel is suitable.

Ash infusion is prepared from boiling water (one liter) and wood ash (about one handful). The ash is poured over with boiling water and insisted until it cools down to room temperature. For irrigation, take five liters of water and add one liter of infusion to it.

Another infusion is prepared from three liters of water and two tablespoons of banana powder (dried banana peel is ground into powder). After insisting for a day, the dressing is ready for use.

Spots on tomato seedlings

Very often sunburns on plants look like this. Direct rays of the sun are contraindicated for tender tomato seedlings. With prolonged exposure to the sun, transparent or white specks may appear on the leaves. You can save the plant by creating shady conditions for it or by spraying with special preparations (for example, Epin).

White spots on the leaves of tomato seedlings may indicate the presence of a fungal disease (for example, septoria). It is advisable to get rid of the affected plants as quickly as possible so that the rest do not become infected.

As a prophylaxis against fungal diseases, the soil for seedlings must first be kept at sub-zero temperatures or thoroughly warmed up.

Black leg of tomato seedlings

Prevention of this disease should be soil preparation for tomato seedlings. It must contain wood ash. In the future, you must strictly follow the rules for caring for seedlings. Favorable conditions for the appearance of this fungal disease will be an excess of moisture in the soil and a very high temperature in the room.

When signs of a black leg appear on plants, it is quite difficult to save them, and sometimes it is already impossible. You can try replanting the surviving plants in a different soil and a new container. Wood ash and sand (pre-calcined) must be added to the soil. All plants must be sprayed with Fundazol and do not water until the soil is completely dry.


The most common problems with eggplant seedlings and solutions

Any gardener who grows eggplant seedlings on his own knows that this whimsical vegetable requires special attention: its seedlings are much more tender than those of tomatoes (tomatoes) and peppers, and therefore there are much more problems with it.

Why do eggplant seedlings wither? What to do if spots appear on the eggplant leaves? What caused the seedlings to stop growing?

Let's try with feeling, sensibly, with an arrangement to consider the causes of more common problems with eggplant seedlings and their likely solutions.


Tomato seedlings are pulled

The main reason for this problem is insufficient lighting of the plants. Most often, seedlings are grown on small windowsills, in small boxes. I want to grow seedlings to the maximum, so a large number of plants grow in one container, which interfere with each other. Tomato seedlings should grow freely so that each seedling has free access to light. If necessary, you need to use additional lighting in the dark.

Another reason may be incorrect temperature conditions. At elevated air temperatures, the stem of plants becomes thinner, and the leaves lose strength. The average daytime temperature in the room should be in the range of 25-28 degrees, and with increased cloudiness - no more than 20 degrees. Indoor "tropical climate" will only harm tomato seedlings.

It is very important to follow the rules for watering seedlings.


Information

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Friends! The time has begun for growing seedlings. Now questions will begin to come - What about the seedlings ?! Save / help!
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1. Be sure to mix the purchased soil with perlite, vermiculite or other "baking powder" - the roots of tomatoes do not tolerate heavy soil well.

2. If possible (and this is just to buy litmus tests at a pet store), check the acidity of the soil. Sometimes producers, trying to deacidify peat, get too carried away and shift the pH value to 7.5, or even to 8. This leads to the fact that plants in such soil will not absorb iron and, accordingly, hello, chlorosis of the leaves. By the way, never add ash to the soil without checking the pH!

3. If the windowsill under the plants is cold, be sure to put some kind of spacer between it and the seedlings. "Legs" of tomatoes should not freeze)).

4. Do not overdo it with watering! The roots are suffocating from the "swamp". And often from a cold swamp. Remember what roots are such a seedling. And often we can see transparent spots on the leaves of slightly grown plants, it is the root system that signals - help! To prevent this from happening, the soil must be breathable - loose and not flooded.

The top layer is dry, but this does not mean that the ground at the roots is also dry. Check whether you need to water the plants in a simple way - take a toothpick or a thin wooden skewer and check the dough for readiness during baking, the same story is here - if any soil particles remain on the toothpick, then you do not need to water yet. If all the earth has crumbled, water it. BUT. very little. Water sideways, do not pour over the stem.

If after picking you have transparent glasses (often plastic 500 ml "beer" glasses are used), then when the ground is wet, there are often water droplets and condensation on the walls. I water only if I see that the inside walls are completely transparent and dry.

5. And, of course, the same light! Lighting is the foundation of everything. Only in good light can there be good green plants. This is why we do not sow tomato seeds in February. And already the March, and then the April spring sun is enough for the full development of plants.

6. Do not rush to feed the tomatoes if you notice any developmental abnormalities, or signs of chlorosis, etc. First check all of the above - fix it. Often it is not the composition of the soil that is to blame, but the wrong agricultural technique, and as a result, the plants simply cannot assimilate this or that nutrient.

Fishmeal is an excellent plant fertilizer
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Compared to bone meal, fish meal contains more nitrogen - about 10% (versus 1-4%). Show in full. This allows you to make this top dressing not only as a pre-sowing fertilizer, but also throughout the entire growing season of garden, garden and field crops. In our country, this natural dressing is still used quite rarely, but its popularity is growing every year, also because it leaches the soil much less than flour from cattle bones.

The approximate composition of fishmeal is as follows:

Crude protein - 59-63%
Fat - 5-9%
Water 5-9%
Calcium - 5-7%
Nitrogen - 4-10%
Phosphorus -3%.

Fishmeal contains more phosphorus than bone meal, so this fertilizer is recommended for crops that actively need it. This composition shows the following crops to be fertilized (approximate instructions for use):

Potatoes. This culture responds very gratefully to the introduction of fishmeal. Potatoes love phosphorus, and with a lack of it, they noticeably "wither". Fish powder is introduced under the potatoes during the digging of the earth before planting, spending 100 g per sq.

Tomatoes. With the application of the above organic fertilizer, nightshade fruits bear much more abundant, they have a sweeter taste and a dense structure of fruits. Some gardeners, knowing about the beneficial properties of fish for tomatoes, use it in its natural form - when planting seedlings, they put in each hole a crucian carp or roach. If we take fishmeal, then the dose of introduction is 1-2 tbsp. spoons under 1 bush.

Fish flour can be applied to any plants throughout the season. Many sources recommend using this natural top dressing during the autumn digging, arguing that this type of organic matter has at least six months of decomposition. But, since beneficial substances are released from the composition of fishmeal throughout this period, it can be applied at any time, throughout the entire growing season of any plants.

Friends! There are 2 versions of the tomato catalog - one, in which you can search for the desired tomato, looking at photos, and the second - only the names. The second version is suitable for those who already know what they are looking for.

Breeder's advice Lyubov Anatolyevna Myazina on growing tomatoes.
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Sowing seeds: soak the seeds in the solution. Show completely. potassium permanganate (1 g per 200 ml of water) for 15-20 minutes, then rinse the seeds to light water, then soak in a solution of any hormonal preparation to increase immunity, which will accelerate the readiness of the seedlings for planting by 5 days. The sowing itself should be carried out on the second day without overgrowing.

The sowing depth is 2 cm. The soil must be compacted so that the seedling, pushing through it, throws off the peel, and does not come to the surface with it.

To obtain friendly shoots, tighten the sowing with a film, but care must be taken to prevent steaming of the seeds. Soil temperature should be at least 15 and not higher than 25 degrees. After the emergence of seedlings, remove the film, and lower the temperature to 16 degrees. in the afternoon and 14 degrees. at night, thanks to this technique, tomatoes begin to assimilate minerals from the soil, the root system is growing rapidly, an increase in brush branching is being prepared, this technique makes the brush compact, promotes the formation of a large number of flowers on the longer and thinner axes of the inflorescence. Increased temperature combined with a lack of light will cause stem elongation, weakening of the root system, and, of course, a small number of flowers. Immediately we give additional illumination, the loop should unfold in the light (and this is also Myazina's advice). When grown in February - March, the backlight is 12-16 hours. Early damage or removal of cotyledons will reduce fruiting or result in complete sterility of the plant. The most important period is from the germination of the seed to the transformation of the seedling into an independent organism. The first 1-3 days - at this time, the formation of inflorescences and flower rudiments occurs. It is very important that the plants do not feel a lack of water during this period.

About watering seeds and seedlings: If the soil is oversaturated with water, then the seeds simply "suffocate", if the seed coat bursts, oxygen is already required for breathing. Seedling pots should not stand on a cold windowsill, swap them more often, put something under them. We water only with warm water, spilling through and through, draining excess water.

Watering is very important for greenhouse tomatoes, since a plant formed into one stem has a disproportionately developed root in relation to the aboveground part, therefore, with an underdeveloped root system, it will not cope with the provision of water and minerals in the summer.For the first 2-4 days of the plant's life, flower tubercles of the first inflorescence are already formed. Then, within 10-20 days (depending on the variety), the stamens, pistil and integumentary organs of the flower are laid. For another 5-8 days, the formation of the first inflorescence continues, but you can see it only after 3-4 weeks.

That is why the correct actions for growing seedlings in the initial period are so important, they determine the timely and friendly ripening of fruits. Young plants consume more minerals than adults. Therefore, tomatoes require an increased introduction of phosphorus-potassium dressings, but not nitrogen. When buying soil for tomato seedlings, you need to pay attention to the low percentage of nitrogen in the mixture.

About diving: it is necessary and very much! Picking allows you to bring the fruiting time closer, since a decrease in the proportion of the root system makes the plant older. But! It is necessary to take care of increasing the mass of roots in the seedlings. How? Just by lowering the soil temperature.

On top dressing: you need any, with trace elements. The first top dressing - on a leaf - with the appearance of the first true leaf, the next - once a week and only on damp soil. Water first, then sprinkle no earlier than 2-3 hours later.

About the landing site: the sunniest area, the highest, away from the forest, on the south side, in a place protected from the winds. No shading, otherwise the yield is reduced and there are fewer sugars in the fruits. No tomatoes like dampness and waterlogging. The greenhouse for tomatoes should be oriented from north to south. The best predecessors of tomatoes: onions, cucumbers, legumes, green crops. Potatoes, as the first to be affected by late blight, should grow as far as possible from tomatoes.

About planting seedlings - when to plant: the night temperature is + 14-16 degrees, the soil temperature at a depth of 10-12 cm is not lower than + 12C. Or there are warm beds. And the seedlings are already 50 days old.

What should the seedlings look like when they are ready to plant? Seedling portrait - developed roots, thickened stem, short internodes, dark green leaves, and on the first brush there is a blossoming flower. Before planting, hardening must be carried out two weeks in advance. reduce watering, do not feed with nitrogen, expose to the sun during the day, then leave overnight. In this case, the seedlings retain their foliage, buds and flowers, the ripening dates of the first fruits do not shift. In a row, it is advisable to grow plants of the same size, it is better to plant weak ones at the edges. You must try not to injure the root so that an infection does not get.

Distance between plants: in open ground - for low-growing tomatoes - 30-40 cm, for tall ones in one stem - 50-60 cm. If we grow in several stems, then the distance should be increased. Advice from Myazina: it is better to plant fewer plants, but take care of them carefully, they will repay with yield and large-fruited.

Mulching is encouraged - with a film with holes, straw, sawdust, cut grass.

How to plant: when planting in the hole, you need to put a complex fertilizer for vegetable crops, a glass of wood ash, a glass of humus, mix everything, pour water, wait until the water leaves, pour it again, you can do it again. Myazina stressed that landing with a clod of earth is not dangerous even in hot weather, as long as the clod is not dry and crumbled. The roots should braid the entire pot inside. When planting tomatoes with an open root system, you must wait until evening or cloudy weather, the contents in the hole should be like "sour cream". It is important to squeeze the root system and the root collar of a young plant. When disembarking, stepchildren break off, even small ones.

Hilling the stem: only after 10-14 days after planting, when adventitious roots are formed on the stems. We plant overgrown seedlings at an angle of 45 degrees, tops to the north, short seedlings - vertically, burying them into the soil to the level of the first true leaf.

A garter is needed even for the most undemanding varieties: at a distance of 10-15 cm from the stem on the north side, stick a peg, this will not damage the growing roots (garter with a loop-eight).

When to water: in the morning, a couple of hours after dawn, when the sap flow began. Watering is necessary only if you noticed the day before that the leaves have wilted in hot weather. After 10-14 days, we carry out the second watering and hilling.

When grown in a greenhouse: avoid condensation, open windows on the side opposite to the wind direction.

How to predict the threat of freezing? If by 23-24 o'clock with a clear sky, the temperature drops below + 6C, there will be frost, in cloudy weather during the night, frosts are excluded.

These are the tips for sowing seeds, getting healthy seedlings, planting them in the ground and initial care. All these measures are aimed at obtaining the maximum in quantity, quality and corresponding to its timing of the harvest.


The main reasons for overgrowing seedlings

The responsibility for growing full-fledged seedlings lies on the shoulders of the gardener, but the unpredictability of spring weather can affect the duration of keeping plants at home. The reasons for the overgrowth of tomato bushes are as follows:

  • early sowing of seeds for seedlings
  • they found seedlings at the wrong time and put them in a bright place
  • insufficient lighting during the growing period
  • over-watering
  • conditions of detention are too warm
  • excess fertilization.

Often, or rather very often, natural anomalies become the cause of overgrowth: a sharp cold snap at the appointed period postpones the transfer of seedlings to open ground for an indefinite time and the gardener must take care that the tomato seedlings do not stretch out.


Low lighting

Why tomato seedlings on the windowsill get sick and die - another reason is the lack of lighting. At the initial stage, the problem is detected by external signs, the seedlings are stretched.

What to do if tomato seedlings wither on the window:

  • requires natural or artificial lighting for 12 hours a day
  • on cloudy days, tomatoes are illuminated with ultraviolet lamps.

An excess of light at home also has a detrimental effect on tomato seedlings. The leaves turn yellow, dry, wither. After that, all the tomato seedlings wither on the window. At night, you do not need to illuminate the bushes with ultraviolet lamps, since in the dark they assimilate the required substances and oxygen.


How to avoid problems when growing tomato seedlings

Healthy, strong tomato seedlings are the key to a rich harvest. Most often, seedlings do not cause grief to gardeners: they develop well and quickly, they easily tolerate a pick. But it happens that young plants begin to turn yellow or red, stretch, dry, and uncharacteristic spots appear on them. These problems can be solved, which means that the future harvest can be saved.

Causes of abnormal development of seedlings

It is possible to grow strong, stocky tomato seedlings with a strong stem and a well-developed root system if comfortable conditions are created for the seedlings, the recommendations for sowing and picking plants are followed. Need to:

  • use nutritious, moisture and breathable soil
  • provide artificial light sources when there is insufficient natural light
  • do moderate regular watering
  • provide enough space for each seedling
  • maintain air humidity in the room at 60-80%
  • observe the recommended temperature regime.

Tomato seedlings love fresh air, grow well with regular ventilation. However, drafts can lead to wilting and even the fall of seedlings.

If the rules for caring for young plants are violated, the seedlings with their appearance signal possible problems. Tomato seedlings should be periodically inspected, since only timely measures will help solve the difficulties that have arisen.

You can grow healthy tomato seedlings while maintaining the balance of light, temperature and humidity.

Table: the most common problems of caring for tomato seedlings and ways to solve them

Photo gallery: problems of tomato seedlings arising from improper care

Diseases and pests of tomato seedlings

Not only care errors cause poor growth and death of tomato seedlings. Young plants can be attacked by pathogens and pests. To prevent infection, you must remember about preventive measures:

  • mandatory pre-sowing treatment of seeds in a weak solution of potassium permanganate
  • disinfection of soil by calcining, freezing, spilling with a solution of potassium permanganate.

Table: signs of diseases of tomato seedlings

Photo gallery: diseases of tomato seedlings

Pests on tomato seedlings

The appearance of pests on tomato seedlings can be prevented by creating comfortable living conditions for seedlings. Identify parasitic insects by visual inspection of seedlings. Most often, young plants are affected

    whitefly. It is a small, whitish flying insect. It lays eggs on the back of tomato leaves. The hatched larvae resemble scales that adhere to the surface of the leaf.

Whitefly larvae can be found on the back of the leaves - they are inactive, pale green, can be covered with a waxy coating

Thrips leave black marks on the leaves

Aphid excrement - a sugary substance - covers tomato leaves, attracts ants, serves as a nutritional medium for sooty mushrooms

Insect pests not only harm seedlings themselves, but also carry various diseases. Affected plants are recommended to be treated first with folk remedies:

  • rinse the leaves with soapy water, for which grate a piece of laundry soap, dissolve it in a small amount of water, and then bring the volume of liquid to 10 liters
  • infusion of tobacco leaves (pour 100 g of dry leaves into 2.5 liters of water, insist for 2 days, filter, bring the volume to 5 liters)
  • garlic water, for its preparation, crush 3 cloves of garlic, pour 100 ml of water, insist for 3 days, strain and dilute 10 liters of water.

Insecticides (Aktar, Fitoverm) are recommended to be used only for mass infection of seedlings.

When growing tomato seedlings, it is important to follow the rules of planting and care, be attentive to young plants, and in case of a problem, establish its cause and quickly take effective measures. This guarantees a large harvest in the future.


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